The Quarterly Newsletter of Wittenberg Academy
The Ninety-Sixth Thesis
Chaplain's Corner- p. 10
Rev. David M. Juhl
The Role of Language in Classical Formation
Poetry- p. 24
An Excerpt from PAradise Lost
A Point of Confession- p. 25
Easter Course Offerings- P. 30
On the Road with Wittenberg Academy- p. 32
From Our Teachers p. 11-21
~The Divine Service
~Music in the Name of Jesus and to God's Glory Alone
~ Seven Characteristics of Lutheran Theology
Good afternoon! It is an honor to stand before you today with the task of discussing the role of language in classical formation at hand. During our time together, we will briefly establish a context for language, touch on why language is important, and highlight how the classical model of teaching and learning has preserved and will continue to preserve language.
Let us begin, then, by defining our terms. Classical formation, the classical tradition of teaching and learning, is not bound by time and is not limited by the perceived needs of the current generation, though unbeknownst to many in the current generation, it does in fact meet their needs. “The purpose of education,” says David Hicks, “is not the assimilation of facts or the retention of information, but the habituation of the mind and body to will and act in accordance with what one knows.” E. Christian Kopff speaks further of classical formation in The Devil Knows Latin, “…the permanent things embedded in tradition are good things for human life and… they have not yet entirely vanished from the Western landscape. Into the shadows of the gloom, admittedly real and growing, an occasional ray of light may shine, illuminating the vitality of tradition and the possibility of its restoration. Tradition is a hardy thing.”
Going back to Hicks’ quote, what one receives and thus knows in classical formation is boiled down to the Classical Liberal Arts and Sciences plus Catechesis.
Moving forward, language, according to the New Oxford American Dictionary, is “the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.”
Brainerd Kellogg and Alonzo Reed, Reed being one of the fathers of sentence diagramming, define language as “Spoken and written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts.”
Richard M. Weaver, in one of his timeless essays, says,
“Language has been called “the supreme organon of the mind’s self-ordering growth.” It is the means by which we not only communicate our thoughts to others but interpret our thoughts to ourselves. The very fact that language has the public aspect of intelligibility imposes a discipline upon the mind; it forces us to be critical of our own thoughts so that they will be comprehensible to others. But at the same time it affords us practically infinite possibilities of expressing our particular inclinations through its variety of combinations and its nuances. Most authorities agree that we even think in language, that without language thought would actually be impossible. Those who attack the study of language (whether in the form of grammar, logic, and rhetoric or in the form of a foreign language) because it is “aristocratic” are attacking the basic instrumentality of the mind.“ (Richard M. Weaver- “Liberal Education Liberates”).
In this statement, Weaver captures not only the "what" of what is language, but the ever critical "why" of language. As far as we can define language, as far as we can study the science of language and the art of language, we can never come so far as to truly understand language, because in language, there is a certain element of mystery. David V. Hicks, in Norms and Nobility, says it this way:
“At the heart of a classical education is the word: the complete mastery of its shades of meaning, of its action-implicit imperatives, of its emotions and values. In ancient times, such was the power of the word that it was believed to hold the key to the secrets of the external and internal realities. The word, standing alone, was viewed as a microcosm of both mythos and logos, making life intelligible. It possessed a mysterious power. God spoke the word, and out of nothing the object came into being. So in the classroom, the simple word valor, and the fact that the teacher utters it with reverential passion might enliven the student’s mind and through the imagination shape his character.”
It is not difficult to assume that Hicks would agree with Quintilian when he writes in Chapter Six of Book One of Institutes of Oratory,
“1. By speakers, as well as writers, there are certain rules to be observed. Language is based on reason, antiquity, authority, custom. It is analogy, and sometimes etymology, that affords the chief support to reason. A certain majesty, and, if I may so express myself, religion, graces the antique. 2.Authority is commonly sought in orators or historians. As to the poets, the obligation of the meter excuses their phraseology, unless, when the measure of the feet offers no impediment to the choice of either of two expressions, they fancifully prefer one to the other… Since the judgment of men eminent in eloquence is in place of reason, then even error is without dishonor in following illustrious guides. 3.Custom, however, is the surest preceptor in speaking, and we must use phraseology, like money, which has the public stamp.” (Quintilian (2010-01-04). Institutes of Oratory (Kindle Locations 744-750). Lee Honeycutt. Kindle Edition.)
If I may be so bold as to summarize this profound statement of Quintilian, if one is to speak or if one is to write, he must consider not only his own context, but also the context of generations past. Standing the test of time gives credence to language. Custom, says Quintilian, is the surest teacher in speaking, but remember that he claims custom as a rule for speakers and writers only after he contends for reason, antiquity, and authority as guides for those who would speak and write.
We see this same adjuration in Deuteronomy chapter 6 when God says:
“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. And these words that I command you today shall be on your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. And when the Lord your God brings you into the land that he swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give you—with great and good cities that you did not build, and houses full of all good things that you did not fill, and cisterns that you did not dig, and vineyards and olive trees that you did not plant—and when you eat and are full, then take care lest you forget the Lord, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. It is the Lord your God you shall fear. Him you shall serve and by his name you shall swear. You shall not go after other gods, the gods of the peoples who are around you— for the Lord your God in your midst is a jealous God—lest the anger of the Lord your God be kindled against you, and he destroy you from off the face of the earth.”
From generation to generation, remember these words, says our God. How are these words to be remembered? They are to be taught. They are to be taught directly, word for word, but they are also to be taught by action and when in action. Why are these words of our God to be taught? Lest we forget. Lest the anger of the Lord your God be kindled against you. Lest you die.
God does not command this because He is vengeful and sits waiting to smite the next sinner. God commands that we remember His words, that we speak His words, that we write His words, because they are good words. They are life-giving words. They are His words.
The Role of Language in Classical Formation. We have asked what does this mean?. We must now ask, how is this done? How does language accomplish its purpose of formation in the classical model of teaching and learning? Allow me, for a moment, to make a case for the historic liturgy as one vital element of classical formation. In the historic liturgy, what do we receive and thus know and thus what habituates the mind and body to will and act? Simply, the words of God, handed down from generation to generation. The historic liturgy teaches us to speak to God the words He has already spoken to us. Some people in our time attempt to make the case that the historic liturgy is not relevant today because it is a foreign language to young people. These young people need to hear about God in words relevant to them. Might we recall here that words only become relevant, formative, and efficacious if they are taught, learned, and used. Recall God’s command in Deuteronomy.
This past week, in my Paideia I class, my students have been reading Book I of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War. In our live session together, I wanted to highlight for them Pericles’ Funeral Oration. In the days of the Peloponnesian War, it was law that an oration must be given on the occasion of the death of soldiers in war. Pericles, in his fulfillment of that law, gave an oration that to this day is studied by students of History and Rhetoric. In bringing all of these points to light for my students, I read to them Pericles’ Funeral Oration, because what better way to study an oration than to hear it? As I read, I kept an occasional eye on the chat box of our live session software. One of my students, overcome with emotion (you would have to know this student to understand how I knew that from her typing), said, “This is just so beautiful! Why doesn’t anyone write or speak like this anymore?” Upon conclusion of Pericles’ oration, I addressed her question by asking how one might learn to speak or write like Pericles. Responses from the class ranged from reading Pericles to reading things like Pericles, etc. In that brief dialogue, I was able to reinforce for my students the grave importance of what they are studying. An art is only lost so long as no one practices it. If we want to speak and write like Pericles, Shakespeare, Cicero, and Caesar, then we need to read and listen to Pericles, Shakespeare, Cicero, and Caesar. Likewise, if we want to nurture the faith given our children in Baptism, we need to feed it with the very words given us by God to teach them.
Shakespeare knew around 65,000 words. The average vocabulary today is 10-20,000 words. Now, many people hold up this fun fact about Shakespeare to make a case for the brilliance of Shakespeare. The fact is that Shakespeare was not unique in his knowledge of words. Many in Shakespeare’s time had similar levels of language mastery. But why? Why did Shakespeare have such command of the language? Consider the works that most likely formed him as recounted by Charles Hoole:
The first form is occupied with the accidence (the part of grammar that deals with the inflections of words) and the "Sententise Pueriles"; the books in use in the second form were "Lily's Grammar," Cato's "Maxims," "Pueriles Confabulatiunculae," and the Colloquies of Corderius; in the third form, in addition to the grammar and Latin Testament, Aesop's Fables, the Dialogues of Castelio, the Eclogues of Mantuanus, and the Colloquies of Helvicus; in the fourth form, in addition to the Testament and grammar, the "Elements of Rhetoric," Terence, "The Selected Epistles of Cicero," Ovid's "De Tristibus," and "Metamorphoses," and Buchanan's Psalms; in the fifth form, in addition to the "Elements of Ehetoric," Livy's Orations, Justin, Caesar, Florus, the Colloquies of Erasmus, and Virgil; in the sixth form, Horace, Juvenal, Persius, Lucan, Plautus, Martial, Cicero's Oations, and Seneca's Tragedies. The list of authors in the sixth form is rather a long one; but it would seem that while Horace, Juvenal, and Persius were thoroughly read, the others were only read in selected portions. On this point Hoole says, in his own detailed account of the work in this form: "As for Lucan, Seneca's Tragedies, Martiall, and the rest of the finest Latin poets, you may do well to give them a taste of each, and show them how and wherein they may imitate them, and borrow something out of them. Mr. Farnbie's notes upon them will be helpful; and Pareus or Taubman upon Plautus will make that some merry comedies of his may be easily read over".
Working backward, then, what formed the great writers and orators read by Shakespeare? In short, The Progymnasmata. Indulge me a few minutes to discuss in brief The Progymnasmata. From the introduction of Progymnasmata Through the Church Year:
"The art of effective speaking or writing begins at an early age. In fact, it begins before a child is born when he hears the sounds of his parents speaking, his siblings playing, and God’s gifts being given in the Divine Service.
When we teach children to speak and write, we look to that which is beautiful for a model for their admiration and replication. The ancient writers are rightly considered for this task and indeed, we consider the ancients in Progymnasmata through the Church Year. We also consider that the feasts, festivals, and commemorations in the Church Year are a very real part of the order of our days in time and space. Using these events as sources of consideration for writing secures their importance in the daily lives of students.
It should be duly noted that these skills are parts of a whole. The culmination of learning these skills should be expert rhetorical performance. As students become versed in the parts of the whole, they will recognize the importance of each skill in aiding the formation of arguments. Likewise, they will see the folly of avoiding a certain rhetorical skill or exercise.
1. Fable: a re-telling of a story with a moral
2. Narrative: a re-telling of a story from given facts
3. Chreia/Anecdote: a re-telling of what a person said
4. Proverb: a summary declarative statement, recommending or condemning something; praise or refute a proverbial saying
5. Refutation: an attack on an opposite view; refute an alleged fact or event
6. Confirmation: defend an alleged fact or event
7. Commonplace: declaration against general vices
8. Encomium: praise a particular person or thing; subjects include persons, things (such as abstract ideas), times (as the seasons), places, animals, and growing things, either general or specific.
9. Vituperation/Invective: condemn a particular person or thing.
10. Comparison: compare particular persons, things, or ideas; a comparative composition, setting something greater or equal side by side with the subject
11. Impersonation: write in the voice and style of a particular character (real or fictional)
12. Description: a composition bringing the subject clearly before the eyes
13. Thesis or Theme: argue an undecided subject
14. Defend/Attack a Law: argue for or against old or new laws
In my estimation, the progymnasmata is the lynchpin of a classical education. It is the vital element that holds all things together.
Recall the words of Richard M. Weaver:
Language has been called “the supreme organon of the mind’s self-ordering growth.” It is the means by which we not only communicate our thoughts to others but interpret our thoughts to ourselves. The very fact that language has the public aspect of intelligibility imposes a discipline upon the mind; it forces us to be critical of our own thoughts so that they will be comprehensible to others. But at the same time it affords us practically infinite possibilities of expressing our particular inclinations through its variety of combinations and its nuances. Most authorities agree that we even think in language, that without language thought would actually be impossible. Those who attack the study of language (whether in the form of grammar, logic, and rhetoric or in the form of a foreign language) because it is “aristocratic” are attacking the basic instrumentality of the mind.
The very fact that language has the public aspect of intelligibility imposes a discipline upon the mind; it forces us to be critical of our own thoughts so that they will be comprehensible to others.
The progymnasmata imposes a discipline upon the mind. It forms the student not only in how to communicate, but also in how to think. We think how we speak and write and we speak and write how we think.
Consider a couple of examples from our time:
Think of the prevalence of texting and tweeting. While helpful in some ways, these methods of communication have served to decimate the language.
Worse yet, we skip letters altogether and communicate solely with emoticons.
Instead of thinking and speaking eloquently and clearly, we communicate in halting phrases, contrived combinations of letters, and tiny tawny pixel combinations. How is it possible to communicate eloquently and clearly and across generations, when we have confined our communication to the whims of ever-changing technology. Language is timeless and aims at eloquence and understanding for all time.
As our time together draws to a close, it may be redundant to ask, why does this all matter? Language is human. Quoting again from Richard Weaver, “The vast majority of people conscious of this tradition agree that the purpose of education is to make the human being more human.” One cannot make the human more human without language.
Mrs. Jocelyn C. Benson serves as Wittenberg Academy's Head Teacher.
This paper was originally presented at the Classical Lutheran Education Symposium in Wichita, Kansas.
From a Parent's Perspective pg. 22
A Grammar School Family's Experience
Mrs. Frances Meadows
From the Head Teacher's Desk- p. 3
The Role of Language in Classical Formation
Mrs. Jocelyn C. Benson
Candor for such a Time as This- p. 8
The Beauty of the Divine Service
Miss Lauren K. Reps
The Beauty of the divine Service
Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace according to Thy word, for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples, a light to lighten the Gentiles and the glory of Thy people Israel. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost; as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod has been handed down many rich traditions. One of the most valuable traditions that we have been given is the Divine Service. As we will read in the subsequent articles of this publication, the Divine Service is unique in that it is where we are served by the Divine, despite the common misconception that it is we who serve the Divine. When we pray the Divine Service on Sunday morning, we are praying the same words as worshipers as far back as the 1st century. Though many may find it dull and redundant to pray the same service every Sunday, it is exceedingly beneficial for many people. For those who have children in their pew, are unable to read, or for whatever reason are unable to speak clearly, the repetition is a blessing. Children are able to partake in the service even though they are not able to read or follow along. They know the words to the Lord's Prayer and can sing the Kyrie word for word. They fold their hands at the proper time, and will promptly remind you if you forget. The hymns that we sing and the tones that we chant have also largely been handed down. If children start attending church at a young age, they know a large majority of the hymns well, if not by heart, by the time they graduate high school. However, the repetition of the liturgy is not only beneficial for children. Those with disabilities are able to follow along and participate with their movements and words because it remains unchanged from week to week. Though they may be unable to hold a regular conversation, they have no problem participating in worship. They faithfully fold their hands and bow their heads at the appropriate times. Though the elderly members at your church may not remember their daughter's name or where they are from, they sing along with the Gloria in Excelsis and clearly speak the Creed at the care center Divine Service. Mothers who are juggling and attempting to calm their children are unable to hold a hymnal, yet are still able to sing along and be a part of the service. The repetition is a wonderful blessing, one for which we should be thankful.
Miss Lauren K. Reps serves as Wittenberg Academy's Communications Director.
The Divine Service
When we think of the Sacramental life we live as Lutheran Christians, we see the distinctive teaching concerning how Jesus gives forgiveness, life, and salvation sets up apart from other Christian confessions. We confess that Holy Baptism delivers us out of death into life through water, God's Word, and the mandate of Jesus to "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you." (Matthew 28:19-20 ESV) We also confess that Christ's true Body and true Blood are present with bread and wine in the Lord's Supper. God's Word shows us this is so with the mandate of the Words of Institution in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and First Corinthians.
What we may forget is that these holy things are set apart by God Himself for use in His Church. To set something (or someone) apart for use in the Church is to "consecrate". The Oxford Dictionary says to consecrate is to "make or declare (something, typically a church) sacred; dedicate formally to a religious purpose". When a church building is completed, the building is often consecrated, or set apart, for sacred use. The Lutheran Service Book Agenda (the book used for occasional services) prefers to use the word "blessing", but you might consider it a consecration of sorts. The building and all the things in it are set apart for use in proclaiming the Gospel.
Though Lutherans do not have a rite for setting apart water as "holy" for use in baptism or for extra-baptismal use, Lutheran Service Book has included the so-called "Flood Prayer" that is used in the baptismal rite as far back as Martin Luther's baptismal rite of 1526. The Flood Prayer doesn't consecrate the water, but it does confess that Christ's baptism in the Jordan River "sanctified and instituted all waters to be a blessed flood and a lavish washing away of sin." God created water as a good thing. It is good to see all water as holy, for God intends water to be used to wash away sin and deliver forgiveness and everlasting life. He sets it apart for us to use even for seemingly mundane tasks like washing our bodies or our clothes.
The Oxford Dictionary also defines the verb "to consecrate" as "to ordain (someone) to a sacred office, typically that of a bishop". Perhaps you've witnessed an ordination of a pastor. Did you notice the language used by the pastor who ordains a candidate for the Holy Preaching Office? "I ordain and consecrate you to the Office of the Holy Ministry of the Word and Sacraments in the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church, in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."
The verbs "to ordain" and "to consecrate" are not arbitrarily chosen. Pastors (or priests, as some Lutheran communions call their pastors) are ordained. Bishops (if the Lutheran communion has an episcopal governance) are consecrated. Lutherans, with Holy Scripture, have the best of both worlds. Our pastors are also bishops. They have oversight over God's people gathered in a specific location. Even in a congregational polity like much of confessional Lutheranism in the United States of America, our pastors are also bishops. We may not ever call our pastor "bishop", but he is set apart (consecrated) to do the work of ministering Jesus Christ and His gifts. Remember that the man himself is not a sacrament! He is consecrated for service in the Gospel. The pastor-bishop is also a sinner who is fed the consecrated gifts Jesus gives His Church.
Our sacramental life sets up apart from other Christians. The sacraments are set apart for God's people to feed them with forgiveness, life, and salvation. These consecrated gifts given our by consecrated men set us apart from death and hell, setting us and keeping us steadfast in the one true faith unto life everlasting.
Rev. David M. Juhl serves as Chaplain of Wittenberg Academy. Additionally, his vocations include husband of one wife, father of five children, and pastor of Our Savior Evangelical Lutheran Church in Momence, Illinois.
The Wittenberg Reformation highlights the Holy of Holies of our Christian faith and life as God’s service toward and among His people based on the central article of the faith, the justification of the ungodly for Jesus’ sake through the Word. The divine Word makes His home in the verbal and sacramental promises that are from Him and for you. Week after week in the Divine Service (which is nothing more nor less than God’s Word and God’s sacraments in service to you) we who once had not received mercy now receive mercy and Christ’s plentiful redemption. After all, “what do you have that you have not received?”
The two most recent hymnals of my church body make this plain in the opening words of their respective introductions: “our Lord speaks and we listen” (from Lutheran Worship—1982), followed up by “our Lord is the Lord who serves” (from Lutheran Service Book—2006). Our enfleshed Lord spoke to His disciples one day the following words: “the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve and to give His life as a ransom for many.” The disciples listened to Him and so now do we, through the Scriptures.
Martin Luther noted that we speak of salvation in two ways: first, how it was achieved by the Son of Man’s life, death, and resurrection; and second, how that salvation is now given out and bestowed. In both cases we receive Christ’s service: first when He offered up His sinless, yet sin-bearing life to His heavenly Father on the cross; and second, when He offers out to faith here and now that full and free salvation in, with, through, under, and by the Word spoken, heard, and trusted.
The Lutheran Confessions note that “the highest worship of God is to receive good things from Him.” Christian worship is a joyful thing, for in it we receive Christ and all God’s mercy. Sunday after Sunday may you, along with the Psalmist, both say and sing: “I was glad when they said to me: ‘Let us go to the house of the Lord [for His divine service given to me, an unworthy sinner].’”
Pastor Matthew Johnson serves as Wittenberg Academy's Chairman on the Board of DIrectors.
Wittenberg Academy is excited to host the 2nd Annual Wittenberg Academy Family Retreat at the beautiful Camp Okoboji in Milford, Iowa on April 27-29, 2017. Last year's conference was full of fun, thoughtful discussions, and faithful worship! This year 's retreat promises to be just as great with Dr. Anthony Esolen as the main speaker. Thanks to the Angel Tear Grant, we are pleased to offer registration at the price of $275 per family instead of $350. The price includes room and board. Registration is open and spots are filling quickly!
For more information or to register, visit http://www.wittenbergacademy.org/retreat-registration.html.
Visit http://www.wittenbergacademy.org/retreat.html to learn more and register!
Music in the Name of Jesus and to God’s Glory Alone
I. N. J.
Music has a rich heritage in Lutheranism. The Evangelical Church (original name for the Lutheran Church) was the “singing Church of the Reformation.” There were many communions who broke with Rome, but only the Evangelicals/Lutherans shamelessly sang. Why did they sing as they did? Why do many STILL sing in this way? One reason is that the one by whom this communion would be known, Martin Luther, was a musician as well as a theologian. He played the lute he composed Church music; he sang a very high tenor. Luther saw music as the handmaid of theology. Though a number in Lutheranism are ashamed of such music, many are reclaiming or building on the rich heritage of Lutheran music.
It may seem odd to say that Lutheran Music is musical. The early founders of the Reformed Church (Zwingli and Calvin) feared that music would take people’s minds away from the theology they taught; thus, they often spoke psalms instead of singing them. Modern day followers of that mindset stick to repetitious texts and music only. Luther was a musician; he saw that music could serve ministerially, in service to the Word, not reigning over it. Music was used in all it richness and fullness with one exception, music of a bawdy nature was not used since it would instigate unholy thoughts. For example, when the original tune for From Heaven Above to Earth I Come started being used in taverns Luther composed the tune for which the hymn now is known. Contrary to popular belief, A Mighty Fortress is not a bar (meaning tavern) tune; it is a tune in bar form (a song form taught in music theory and history).
Lutheran Music is Scriptural. The words of Holy Scripture can be seen throughout this music. Many of Martin Luther’s hymns were paraphrases of Psalms. Many know that A Mighty Fortress is based on Psalm 46 (Lutheran Service Book [LSB] 656). Some other Psalm paraphrases include: O Lord, Look Down from Heaven, Behold (Ps. 12; The Lutheran Hymnal [TLH] 260) and If God Had Not Been on Our Side (Ps. 124; TLH 267). To Jordan Came the Christ Our Lord (LSB 406) is a wonderful hymn on the Baptism of Our Lord. Such hymns call for boisterous singing – another thing for which Lutherans are known.
Paul shunned the speaking in tongues and instead looked to praying and singing in his spirit and with understanding (1 Cor 14). Hymnody is to be tested by Holy Scriptures even as the preaching of the Word of God is tested. It is not feelings (Pietism and other Enthusiasts) or rational thought (Rationalism or Enlightenment) that matter most. All emotions and thinking are subject to the revealed Word of God; they are to serve God’s Word, not rule over it. Even so, all music done in the Church is to serve the true proclamation of God’s Word.
One can cite the Bible without pointing to God, or more specifically, to Christ. Many praise songs are made up of short passages of Scripture (mind-numbingly repetitious, by intention) with no context pointing to Jesus Christ or the Holy Trinity. In fact, because these praise songs mostly come from neo-evangelical sources, they explicitly leave out any talk of the Trinity since many such communions deny that there is a Triune nature to God. Most praise songs dwell upon what man does for God, not what God does for man. The focus is on the wrong place in such music.
Lutheran music confesses Jesus Christ and Him crucified (1 Cor 2:2). Although overlooked by many, Lutheran music confesses every clause of the three Ecumenical creeds. Not every hymn or song will include every detail about God or about Christ, but over the span of the Church Year every article will be sung.
Here are some of the hymns and select hymn stanzas which confess the Triune God’s working for the salvation of man:
CREATION: God Who Madest Earth and Heaven (Heinrich Albert; TLH #549. One note: TLH does not include the final stanza of the hymn which is about the holy angels guarding the saints). Albert’s hymn is a paraphrase of Luther’s Morning Prayer from the Small Catechism.
God, Who madest earth and heaven,
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost;
Who the day and night hast given,
Sun and moon and starry host;
Whose almighty hand sustains
Earth and all that it contains. (TLH #549, st. 1)
SIN/FALL INTO SIN: By Adam’s Fall Man’s Frame Entire (Durch Adams Fall, Lazarus Spengler; see Walther’s Hymnal [WH], #236. The hymn known as All Mankind Fell in Adam’s Fall [LSB 562] is a condensed translation of this hymn by Matthias Loy; the original is far richer); O Man, Bewail Thy Grievous Sin (O Mensch bewein; Sebald Heyden; see Supplementary Hymns 2016, #7); Dear Christians, One and All, Rejoice (Luther; LSB 556. See especially stanza two: “Fast bound in Satan’s chains I lay…”). From Depths of Woe (Luther; LSB 607).
By Adam’s fall man’s frame entire
And nature was infected;
The source whence came the poison dire,
Was not to be corrected,
The lust accursed,
Indulged at first,
Brought death as its production;
But God’s free grace
Hath saved our race
From mis’ry and destruction. (WH, #236)
TEN COMMANDMENTS: These Are the Holy Ten Commands (Luther; LSB 581). This gives not only the commandments, but also the teaching of a life of love demonstrated by the commands. The final stanzas reveal man’s unworthiness and points to Jesus for salvation.
You have this Law to see therein
That you have not been free from sin
But also that you clearly see
How pure toward God life should be.
Have mercy, Lord!
Our works cannot salvation gain:
They merit only endless pain.
Forgive us, Lord! To Christ we flee,
Who pleads for us endlessly.
Have mercy, Lord! (LSB 581, st. 11-12)
PROMISE OF A SAVIOR: Savior of the Nations, Come (Ambrose of Milan; German version, Martin Luther. LSB 332); Dear Christians, One and All (Luther; LSB 556. See especially stanza four, “But God had seen my wretched state…”).
Savior of the nations, come,
Virgin’s son make here Your home!
Marvel now, O heav’n and earth,
That the Lord chose such a birth.
Then stepped forth the Lord of all
From His pure and kingly hall;
God of God, yet fully man,
His heroic course began. (LSB 332, st, 1, 4)
INCARNATION and BIRTH OF THE SAVIOR: We Praise You, Jesus, at Your Birth (Luther; LSB 382). Come, Your Hearts and Voices Raising (Paul Gerhardt; LSB 375). O Jesus Christ, Thy Manger Is (Gerhardt; LSB 372 or, for the original tune, TLH #81). From Heaven Above to Earth I Come (Luther; LSB 358).
O Jesus Christ, Thy manger is
My paradise at which my soul reclineth.
For there, O Lord,
Doth lie the Word
Made flesh for us; herein Thy grace forth shineth.
Thou Christian heart,
Whoe’er thou art,
Be of good cheer and let no sorrow move thee!
For God’s own Child
In mercy mild,
Joins thee to Him; how greatly God must love thee! (LSB 372, st. 1, 4)
SUFFERING AND DEATH OF THE SAVIOR: A Lamb Goes Uncomplaining Forth (Gerhardt; LSB 438); O Dearest Jesus, What Law Hast Thou Broken (Johann Heermann; LSB 439); Upon the Cross Extended (Gerhardt; LSB 453).
A Lamb goes uncomplaining forth
The guilt of sinners bearing
And, laden with the sins of earth,
None else the burden sharing;
Goes patient on, grows weak and faint,
To slaughter led without complaint,
That spotless life to offer,
He bears the stripes, the wounds, the lies,
The mockery, and yet replies,
“All this I gladly suffer.” (LSB 438, st. 1)
RESURRECTION OF JESUS: Christ Jesus Lay in Death’s Strong Bands (Luther; LSB 458); Awake, My Heart, with Gladness (Gerhardt; LSB 467).
Christ Jesus lay in death’s strong bands
For our offenses given;
But now at God’s right hand He stands
And brings us life from heaven.
Therefore let us joyful be
And sing to God right thankfully
Loud songs of alleluia!
Here our true Paschal Lamb we see,
Whom God so freely gave us;
He died on the accursèd tree—
So strong His love—to save us.
See, His blood now marks our door;
Faith points to it; death passes o’er,
And Satan cannot harm us.
Alleluia! (LSB 458, st, 1, 5)
ASCENSION OF CHRIST: We Thank Thee, Jesus, Dearest Friend (Anon., partially attributed to Nikolaus Selnecker; TLH #223). We thank Thee, Jesu, dearest friend,
That Thou didst into heav’n ascend.
O blessed Savior, bid us live
And strength to soul and body give. Hallelujah!
Ascended to His throne on high,
Hid from our sight, yet always nigh,
He rules and reigns at God’s right hand
And has all pow’r at His command.
Hallelujah! (TLH 223, st. 1-2)
RETURN OF CHRIST: The Day Is Surely Drawing Near (Bartholomäus Ringwaldt; LSB 508); Wake, Awake, for Night Is Flying (Philipp Nicolai; LSB 516).
The day is surely drawing near
When Jesus, God’s anointed,
In all His power shall appear
As judge whom God appointed.
Then fright shall banish idle mirth,
And flames on flames shall ravage earth
As Scripture long has warned us.
My Savior paid the debt I owe
And for my sin was smitten;
Within the Book of Life I know
My name has now been written.
I will not doubt, for I am free,
And Satan cannot threaten me;
There is no condemnation! (LSB 508, st. 1, 5)
WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT: Come, Holy Ghost, God and Lord (Luther; LSB 497); May God Bestow on Us His Grace (Luther; LSB 823).
Come, Holy Ghost, God and Lord,
With all Your graces now outpoured
On each believer’s mind and heart;
Your fervent love to them impart.
Lord, by the brightness of Your light
In holy faith Your Church unite;
From ev’ry land and ev’ry tongue
This to Your praise, O Lord, our God, be sung:
Alleluia, alleluia! (LSB 497, st. 1)
LIFE EVERLASTING: Lord, Thee I Love with All My Heart (Martin Schalling; LSB 708, especially the third stanza). Not to mention Luther’s motet: I Shall Not Die, but Live.
Lord, let at last Thine angels come,
To Abr’ham’s bosom bear me home,
That I may die unfearing;
And in its narrow chamber keep
My body safe in peaceful sleep
Until Thy reappearing.
And then from death awaken me,
That these mine eyes with joy may see,
O Son of God, Thy glorious face,
My Savior and my fount of grace.
Lord Jesus Christ, my prayer attend, my prayer attend,
And I will praise Thee without end. (LSB 708, st. 3)
Lutheran Music also proclaims the Sacraments (depending on one’s definition of sacraments: Holy Baptism, Holy Absolution, and Holy Communion). Lutherans not only proclaim the fact that there are sacraments, but that they also work as intended, for the forgiveness of sins. In Luther’s To Jordan Came the Christ, our Lord we sing these powerful words:
All that the mortal eye beholds
Is water as we pour it.
Before the eye of faith unfolds
The pow’r of Jesus’ merit.
For here it sees the crimson flood
To all our ills bring healing;
The wonders of His precious blood
The love of God revealing,
Assuring His own pardon. (LSB 406, st. 7)
It is one thing to know that God forgives. It is quite another thing to know that He has appointed pastors who MUST forgive sins confessed to them. Nicolaus Herman’s hymn, “As Surely as I Live,” God Said, confesses this truth:
“What you will bind, that bound shall be;
What you will loose, that shall be free;
To My dear Church the keys are giv’n
To open, close the gates of heav’n.”
The words which absolution give
Are His who died that we might live;
The minister whom Christ has sent
Is but His humble instrument.
When ministers lay on their hands,
Absolved by Christ the sinner stands;
He who by grace the Word believes
The purchase of His blood receives. (LSB 614, st. 4-6)
Beginning with O Lord, We Praise Thee (LSB 617) and Jesus Christ, Our Blessed Savior (LSB 627), Lutherans have proclaimed the Sacrament of the Altar in all richness. The powerful words of Haquin Spegel confess not only the fact of Christ’s body and blood, not only that we receive these for forgiveness of sins, but also that those who eat unworthily (without faith in Christ and His Supper) receive judgment, not salvation:
His Word proclaims and we believe
That in this Supper we receive
His very body, as He said,
His very blood for sinners shed.
We dare not ask how this can be,
But simply hold the mystery
And trust this word where life begins:
“Given and shed for all your sins.” They who this word do not believe
This food unworthily receive,
Salvation here will never find ‒
May we this warning keep in mind! (LSB 634, st. 4-6)
Lutheran music finds its home in the historic liturgy of the Church. Not only did Luther set the Ordinary (sections that are the same every service) of the Mass (Divine Service; Hauptgottesdienst) as hymns in his German Mass, but he also wrote hymns for the propers (sections, like Introit and Gradual, which change every Sunday and feast day). Some of these were discussed in the first part of this article. The choral history of Lutheran music was emphasized by Luther. The first Lutheran kantor, Johann Walter, with Luther set the standards for Lutheran music. Although much music was written for the congregation to sing, the choir also had its share of singing. One of the duties of the choir was to sing the portions of the liturgy (liturgy means, ‘work FOR the people’, not, as many were taught, ‘work by the people’) assigned to it; chiefly, these portions would be the propers. Most often the choir sang the Introit and Gradual for each Divine Service. The choir often sang hymns in alternation with the congregation, singing certain stanzas of a hymn with the congregation singing the other stanzas. In the time of Johann Sebastian Bach, one of the Propers of the day, except in penitential seasons (Advent and Lent), would be the cantata. His cantatas demonstrate the full richness of vocal and instrumental music joined harmoniously with fantastic, theological texts. These cantatas function as musical sermons within the service.
Lutheran music also fits into the liturgical year inherited from Rome. While many non-Catholics and non-Lutherans are baffled with the orderliness of the Church Year, most Lutherans wouldn’t know what to do without it! Lutherans are accustomed to following in orderly progression: Advent (Savior, of the Nations, Come), Christmas (From Heaven Above to Earth I Come), Epiphany (O Morning Star, How Fair and Bright), Lent (A Lamb Goes Uncomplaining Forth), Holy Week (Upon the Cross Extended), Easter (Christ Jesus Lay in Death’s Strong Bands), Ascension (We Thank Thee, Jesus, Dearest Friend), Pentecost (Come, Holy Ghost, God and Lord), Trinity (God, the Father, Be Our Stay), Trinity season, including Reformation (A Mighty Fortress Is our God), and ending with the Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins (Wake, Awake, for Night Is Flying).
Lutherans always have used whatever appropriately CAN be used from other communions. Thus Lutheran music is catholic, that is, universal. Lutheran music includes many hymns and chants inherited from Rome. Savior of the Nations, Come, [LSB 332] is Luther’s hymn based on the Ambrose’s hymn, Veni, Redemptor gentium. What would All Saints’ Day be like without For All the Saints (LSB 677) from the Anglican communion? Although many hymns from English Church bodies smack of Theology of Glory and works’ righteousness, others have been used with some alteration of the text. Lutherans use the best of music and hymnody from various communions of the Church, as long as the text confesses Christ and the Triune God aright.
Throughout this article reference has been made to Lutheran Music, not Lutheran Church Music. There is a reason: Lutheran Music IS Lutheran Church Music. Lutheran Music is written for the glory of God and for the edification of man. That takes place primarily in the services of the Church. Whether the music be for congregation (choir of the whole, as Luther called it), choir, soloists, organist, or instrumentalists it is set to the highest standards for service under the Word of God. Such rationale is why J. S. Bach oft penned either ‘I.N.J .’(In Nomine Jesu, In the name of Jesus) or ‘J. J. ‘(Jesu Juva, Jesus, help!) at the beginning of his music. At the end of many works he also wrote, ‘S. D. G.’(Soli Deo Gloria, To God alone be the glory). Lutherans should be thankful that unlike many of those who broke from Rome, Luther and his followers saw music in the service as an aid, not a hindrance, to God’s Holy Word. It is meet right and salutary for saints to “sing to the LORD a new song, for He hath done marvelous things” (TLH #667; Ps 98. Luther understood ‘new song’ to be a song of the Gospel).
S. D. G. + TEL
Rev. Thomas Lock serves as a music teacher for Wittenberg Academy. He and his bride live in Denver, Colorado, where he serves as Kantor for Trinity Lutheran Church.
Pastor Charles Henrickson serves as Wittenberg Academy's Paideia III instructor.
"Confessors, princes, duty bound,
To Augsburg bold they came;
Before the king they stood their ground
And were not put to shame.
Their good confession made that day
Proved not to be in vain;
Gird us their sons, Lord, that we may
Still follow in their train."
I teach the Paideia III Theology course for Wittenberg Academy on the Lutheran Reformation and the Lutheran Confessions. In this brief article, I want to talk about seven characteristics of Lutheran theology.
Lutheran theology is biblical. It is firmly grounded on the Word of God. Think of what Luther said when he stood before the emperor at the Diet of Worms: “My conscience is captive to the Word of God.” Think of how Luther teaches in the Small Catechism, adding “Where is this written?” to his sections. When I teach the Lutheran Confessions, I often say, “Think of the Book of Concord as a great big Bible study.” Because it is. The Lutheran Confessions are replete with hundreds of Bible citations, showing clearly how our doctrine and practice are founded on Scripture. Lutheran theology is biblical.
Lutheran theology is catholic. That is, it is not saying anything new but rather what the church has taught in all times and in all places. The Confessors make this point repeatedly: “Don’t lump us in with the sects, those radical new groups bringing in their innovations. No, we are teaching what the ecumenical Creeds teach, what the church Fathers have taught. Look, here, we can back up what we are saying.” Lutheran theology is catholic.
Lutheran theology is clear. Notice the pattern you see repeatedly in the Augsburg Confession: “Our churches believe, teach, and confess. . . .” And then they state the positive doctrine. This is followed by: “We condemn and reject. . . .” And then they state the errors being rejected. This method serves to make our position clear. There is no attempt to hide under vague language that could be taken in different ways. Lutheran theology is clear.
Lutheran theology is Christocentric. The person and work of Christ for our justification--this stands at the center of all our doctrine and at the center of each article of doctrine. Look, for example, at Article IV of the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, where Melanchthon states over and over again that our teaching on justification gives all glory to Christ as Mediator. Lutheran theology is Christocentric.
Lutheran theology is pastoral. Along with the recurring theme of giving all glory to Christ, there is the corresponding refrain that our doctrine gives true comfort to troubled consciences. This is a pastoral concern for the souls of people. A clear proclamation of the truth of the gospel is the only thing that can give real peace to a sinner weighed down by guilt. Luther knew this from his own experience. The reforms that Luther and his colleagues made in the life of the church--in the reform of the Mass, in the reform of Penance, etc.--these gave consolation where there was despair, these gave certainty where there was doubt. Lutheran theology is pastoral.
Lutheran theology is irenic. That is, it seeks peace. We desire harmony, concord, agreement in the faith. We do not argue just to quarrel. “Behold, how good and pleasant it is when brothers dwell in unity!” (Psalm 133:1). The task may be long and difficult, but we endeavor to resolve conflicts within the church, not by brushing them aside but by working them out on the basis of God’s Word. That was the purpose of the Formula of Concord, and indeed it is the goal of the entire Book of Concord. Lutheran theology is irenic.
Lutheran theology is bold. Again, think of Luther standing before the emperor at Worms. Or, nine years later, the Lutheran princes standing before the emperor at Augsburg. God supplied the courage they needed to make a bold confession in the face of powerful opposition. Lutherans can say with the psalmist, “I will also speak of your testimonies before kings and shall not be put to shame” (Psalm 119:46). Lutheran theology is bold. I’ll close with a hymn I wrote about this:
A Lonely Monk, Now Long Ago
1 A lonely monk, now long ago,
Nailed truth upon a door;
The echoes of that hammer blow
Rang out to many more.
And when he spoke his “Here I stand,”
Although he could be slain,
Throughout the realm a growing band
Soon followed in his train.
2 Confessors, princes, duty bound,
To Augsburg bold they came;
Before the king they stood their ground
And were not put to shame.
Their good confession made that day
Proved not to be in vain;
Gird us their sons, Lord, that we may
Still follow in their train.
3 With confidence in Christ alone,
Our faith we will confess;
For Jesus’ death made us His own,
And now He lives to bless.
Our Savior leads us heavenward,
Eternal life to gain;
Confessing truth that we have heard,
We follow in His train!
For Reformation Day or Presentation of the Augsburg Confession
Text: Charles Henrickson, © 2012
Tune: All Saints New (LSB 661, 678)
C M D
Seven Characteristics of Lutheran Theology
Hello, Fellow Wittenberg Academy Families!
My name is Frances Meadows, and our family has been homeschooling for seven years. My husband, Joseph, has been in the United States Navy for 17 years. Our two girls are Alayna (5th/6th Grade) and Katalyn (Kindergarten).
I didn’t imagine that I would ever be a stay-at-home mom, let alone a home educator, but as our family grew I yearned to serve in my vocation as wife and mother in new ways. Our oldest daughter, Alayna, had an amazing curiosity and thirst for knowledge. Since she wasn’t old enough to start public school yet, we began with free preschool activities and curriculum. We made our theological classes with CPH materials like the Arch books series, always beginning our day in prayer. Alayna’s vocation as a student began, and she would eagerly ask for more lessons! Before I knew it, we were on to a formal preschool program, then kindergarten curriculum with first grade math, and we were on this amazing journey.
I enjoyed learning alongside Alayna. I loved being the one who watched her make discoveries and connections in this Creation. I grew as a teacher and discovered new facets of our relationship, but also working through the materials with her allowed me to revisit the basics of education with new methods and strategies. I was even able to fill some of the gaps in my knowledge, such as basic Greek and Latin!
Being a military family, homeschooling made our three years that we lived overseas in Japan a much easier transition. We were able to be on familiar ground at home while we learned to function in and explore a new culture. We also had an incredible secular homeschool co-op that allowed us to have classmates and playmates a few times a week. The journey continued to be a blessing for our whole family, including little Katalyn who was just over half a year old when we made that move.
Near the end of my husband’s tour, the effects of being away from a Lutheran community were weighing more heavily. We missed the fellowship and support from the body of believers. We missed being present hearing the Word and receiving the Sacrament of Holy Communion. I spent a lot of time watching Lutheran sermons, reading Lutheran blogs, and watching full streaming Divine Services online. Then I happened upon the Wittenberg Academy!
I was very excited about the idea of a Lutheran school that I could access no matter where the Navy may need us to live! I listened to interviews Jocelyn Benson had done with Issues Etc. and KFUO. I emailed Jocelyn the same day, and was very pleased to hear back from her by the next day! The dialogue that developed over the next couple of weeks was an answer to our prayers.
Since the days of those first few informative emails, to the phone call once we made it home to the United States, to the beginning of Alayna’s fourth grade year, Wittenberg Academy has been a blessing. The materials gathered for the classes, including rich catechesis and original translated texts of ancient writings has been a joy to present. Even the older math texts have been a source of wonder and entertainment as we learned to “annex ciphers (add zeroes)” and felt like we were living in the era of Sherlock Holmes, whose mysteries we were reading! The language writing lessons were very complimentary to the Confirmation classes held in the church we attend.
The free grammar school curriculum has allowed us to begin saving up for the junior high and high school classes, and having the texts provided free of cost and in an electronic format have lessened the burden of our permanent change of duty station moves.
One blessing that stands out from our first year with Wittenberg was the Vocatio Family Retreat at Camp Okoboji in Milford, Iowa this past spring. Vocatio was the first time the girls were able to meet classmates of their same curriculum in person. They enjoyed having a mini VBS with their new friends who had their faith in common. They also were constantly singing the hymn “God’s Own Child, I Gladly Say It” afterward!
I was able to pass on what I had learned in the parents’ seminars held by Dr. Ryan C. MacPherson to my friends at home. The gatherings of the women being able to speak together about what it means to be wives and mothers was encouraging. Being in prayer and worship several times a day was a beautiful thing. To hear all of those children chanting the liturgy was a sweet sound that I cherish. I’ve also never seen English country dancing like that in person, and were they marvelous!
We’ve found a home at Wittenberg Academy, one that we can grow both in faith and love toward one another and one that lets us explore God’s handiwork with worthy resources. This gives me a sense of peace and gives me the freedom to serve my family with these gifts.
Docendi Sunt Christiani.
"I loved being the one who watched her make discoveries and connections in this Creation."
“Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit
Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast
Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of EDEN, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top
Of OREB, or of SINAI, didst inspire
That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,
In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth
Rose out of CHAOS: Or if SION Hill
Delight thee more, and SILOA'S Brook that flow'd
Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th' AONIAN Mount, while it pursues”
Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
And chiefly Thou O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all Temples th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread
Dove-like satst brooding on the vast Abyss
And mad'st it pregnant: What in me is dark
Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That to the highth of this great Argument
I may assert th' Eternal Providence,
And justifie the wayes of God to men.”
-Excerpt from Book 1
A point of confession
2016-17 Academic Calendar
September 6- November 23 (Thanksgiving Break: November 24-27)
November 28-March 3 (Christmas Break: December 24- January 8)
March 6-May 26 (Easter Break: April 13-17)
June 5- August 25 (No Class July 4)
 Everything, therefore, in the Christian Church is ordered to the end that we shall daily obtain there nothing but the forgiveness of sin through the Word and signs, to comfort and encourage our consciences as long as we live here. Thus, although we have sins, the [grace of the] Holy Ghost does not allow them to injure us, because we are in the Christian Church, where there is nothing but [continuous, uninterrupted] forgiveness of sin, both in that God forgives us, and in that we forgive, bear with, and help each other.
 But outside of this Christian Church, where the Gospel is not, there is no forgiveness, as also there can be no holiness [sanctification]. Therefore all who seek and wish to merit holiness [sanctification], not through the Gospel and forgiveness of sin, but by their works, have expelled and severed themselves [from this Church].
Luther's Large Catechism- The Apostle's Creed
This book is a treasure for all ages!
Buy this book for your kids, buy it for your grandkids, buy it for the kids at church, buy this book!
Then teach this hymn to your kids, your grandkids, the kids at church, and tell your pastor to have it sung at your funeral.
Sing this hymn!
from Kloria Publishing
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Easter Term Registration is Now Open!
Some of the courses offered:
Progymnasmata Writing Course: We write how we think and we think how we write. In Progymnasmata, students will learn rhetorical excellence by using the series of exercises followed by writers through the ages. Through study, imitation, and practice, students will work toward mastery of each important skill. Phillip Melanchthon, in his On Eloquence, said, "Therefore, in order to obtain the ability to speak and judge, nothing is as indispensable as the exercise of the pen.”
Advanced Public Speaking: This is Wittenberg Academy's course in advanced public speaking and it emphasizes cultivation of style and imagination. The approach to this course is classical, and students enjoy it very much. The core of the course is a series of three speeches, which constitute an exercise in "imitatio," a pedagogical scheme developed in the Roman era and practiced widely in medieval times. The idea is to expose students to great oratory, have them study it, memorize and "declaim" excerpts, then imitate its style. As they develop a feel for stylistic excellence, they are encouraged to compose original works. This graduated approach is very effective. The course begins with an overview of rhetoric in the liberal arts, followed by focused study in elements of style. There are speaking assignments designed to break the ice, but real application of classical concepts begins with a memorized speech. Students select a speech of interest from days of yore. They select a portion of it that can be performed in 6 minutes. Nothing cultivates a strong grasp of both style and content like memorization. Next comes an "essentializing exercise," in which students identify the essential message of the speech. They then do an imitatio speech in which they apply that theme to a contemporary situation. In that speech they are to emulate the style of the person whose speech they chose to memorize. Finally, they are invited to compose and perform an original oration that demonstrates mastery of course content. They learn a great deal about how to move an audience (pathos) and, specifically, how to deploy figures of speech masterfully.
Astronomy: Martin Luther said, "Astronomy is the most ancient of all sciences, and has been the introducer of vast knowledge... I like astronomy and mathematics, which rely upon demonstrations and sure proofs." Astronomy is the branch of science that deals with celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole. In this course, students will study the history of Astronomy, read the writings of various influential Astronomers, and engage in various projects geared toward gaining an understanding of and appreciation for God's creation.
Representational Drawing: As Creator of the universe, God was the first artist. But he also put into mankind the ability to observe and appreciate his creation, as well as to imitate, in a small way, his creative work. This class is an academic introduction to drawing with dry media (charcoal, pencil, and soft pastel). By means of demos, studio projects, and excercises, the course will cover principles of light and shadow, drawing technique, composition, and color theory. In addition, the students will learn to participate meaningfully in group critiques; to talk intelligently about their own work, and to give pointed feedback to their classmates.
Anatomy & Kinesiology: This course examines the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relationship to exercise. Students will engage in physical and mental activities to strengthen their bodies. The wonder of God's creation can be seen through the human body. It is the creation that God came to save. The aim of this course is for the student to see the beauty of the human body and be moved to appreciate it and care for it properly.
... Among Many Others!
To Register Today!
Easter Term Begins on March 6
On the Road with Wittenberg Academy
Recent and upcoming travels
HIgher Things Youth Retreat March 24-25, 2017
St. Paul Ev Lutheran Church
Wittenberg Academy Family Retreat April 27-29, 2017
Camp Okoboji Milford, IA
Minnesota State Pastoral Conference May 15-17, 2017
Madden's On Gull Lake
Higher Things Conference June 27-30, 2017
San Antonio, TX