DECEMBER 2018 NEWSLETTER
pollution & detoxification special
Page 3: Cleansing & Detoxification - Ben Brown
Page 5: Food in Focus
Page 6: Genes & Detoxification - Dr Shania Lee
Page 8: BCNH Graduate Interview
Page 10: Jennifer Sturman Award
Page 11: Student Corner - Detox Tips
Page 13: Quiz
Page 14: References
Page 15: Quiz Answers
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A warm welcome to the December edition of the BCNH Newsletter.
With Christmas just around the corner, it won’t be long until we will be reading about detox diets in the media as people hope to start the New Year with healthy intentions and counter any prior overindulgences! Whilst relaxing and celebrating with family and friends is key to a balanced approach to life, it is probably better to support our detoxification processes a little more consistently throughout the year.
This issue focuses on environmental pollution and detoxification. We have some great articles from both Ben Brown ND and Dr Shania Lee about practical ways to approach detoxification and how genetics play a role in its pathways. BCNH students have also been sharing their tips on how they reduce their toxic load in daily life. Finally, turn to page 10 to find out the worthy BCNH student recipient of the Jennifer Sturman Award, kindly donated by her family in honour of her memory.
I’d like to take this opportunity to wish everyone a very Happy Christmas and a healthy New Year from myself and the BCNH Team.
By Benjamin Brown, ND - Naturopath, BCNH Lecturer, Science Writer and Speaker
cleansing & Detoxification: practical tips
Environmental pollutants are widespread though our environment including in the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the water we drink. Minimising exposure and improving your body’s ability to detoxify is an important step towards reducing the effects of these chemicals and improving your health.
Your health is an environmental issue
Common pollutants include heavy metals, industrial chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, and food additives. These pollutants, even at very low levels of exposure, have been linked to a number of serious health concerns; heart disease, weight gain, type-2 diabetes, certain cancers, endometriosis, autoimmune disease, cognitive and behavioural disorders, dementia, and chronic fatigue.1-8
Tips for minimising exposure to environmental pollutants
Choose organic foods to reduce exposure to chemicals used in conventional food production such as antibiotics, hormones, pesticides, fungicides and herbicides.9
Filter drinking water to reduce exposure to contaminants that may be present even after water has been treated.10
Ensure good air quality by monitoring carbon monoxide levels if you have a heating system, using an ionizer or air filter to reduce dust and moulds and considering indoor plants as they purify the air.11
Avoid exposure to household products and cosmetics that contain toxic chemicals including aluminium containing antiperspirants and lead based lipsticks.12
Reduce your exposure to heavy metals such as mercury from fish, aluminium from pots and pans, lead from paint and cadmium from cigarette smoke.
Tips for improving detoxification and elimination of pollutants
Eat a predominantly plant-based diet rich in fruits and vegetables as these foods are high in nutrients that support and improve detoxification.13-15
Brassica vegetables (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower etc) are particularly good promoters of detoxification, aim to consume about a cup per day.16
Improve elimination through your kidneys by drinking approximately 1.5-2 litres (6-8 glasses) of water a day.17
A high fibre intake from foods such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits and nuts encourages regular bowel movements and the elimination of detoxified waste.18
Use herbs and spices, particularly turmeric, rosemary and garlic, in food and cooking as they may enhance detoxification.19
Sweating regularly through saunas, infrared saunas, stream rooms or exercise may improve elimination of toxins through your skin.20
Consume foods rich in the green pigment chlorophyll such as dark green leafy vegetables and the super foods chlorella or spirulina as they may assist toxin removal.21
Consider supplementing your diet with the herb milk thistle to support liver detoxification at a dose equivalent of 200-400mg of silymarin per day (silymarin is the active ingredient found in the herb).22
A probiotic supplement may improve elimination as well as reduce the production of toxic compounds in your digestive system.23
Although efforts, such as the Stockholm Convention,24 are being made internationally to reduce the production and contamination of the environment with toxic pollutants the long life of these chemicals ensures they will remain a threat to human health for generations to come. There is however accumulating evidence to suggest you can minimise their effects with simple dietary and lifestyle behaviours that reduce exposure and increase their detoxification and elimination.
cleansing & detoxification
PAN FRIED SEA BASS & CITRUS BROCCOLI by Gordon Ramsay
FOOD IN FOCUS - broccoli
STIR FRIED BROCCOLI WITH COCONUT by BBC Good Food
BEEF & BROCCOLI STIR FRY by Jamie Oliver
RED LENTIL DAHL SOUP WITH BROCCOLI TARKA by Olive Magazine
Broccoli, a member of the brassica vegetable family, has numerous reported health benefits to support liver function and detoxification.
A source of insoluble fibre, broccoli can aid transit through the digestive system and enable effective excretion of toxins. It also contains potent antioxidants, such as beta carotene, which can help protect the liver from free radical damage.
Broccoli also contains glucosinolates which, when chewed, digested and acted upon by intestinal bacteria, are converted to isothiocyanates. Isothiocyanates support both phase 1 and phase 2 detoxification by slowing down phase 1 and increasing the activity of phase 2 liver enzymes. This results in improved metabolism and excretion of toxins out of the body. However, to enable maximum benefit of this process, broccoli is best eaten very lightly cooked rather than raw.
Feature article : genes and detoxification
Our body has an amazing capacity to rid itself of harmful or toxic substances! This capacity is determined by genes that encode for detoxification enzymes.
Our detoxification genes work at different rates due to genetic variations (called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs). Understanding the genes for detoxification can help you tailor make a toxin/detoxification programme for your clients. We take in toxins daily through eating natural plant toxins and man-made chemicals, through breathing in air pollution, and putting on skin care products.
Phase 1 Detoxification
Many toxins – whether eaten, breathed, or created in our bodies – are broken down by the Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family of enzymes in what is known as phase 1 of detoxification. Most of this takes place in the liver, which is the body’s main organ for detoxification. These enzymes take a substance (xenobiotics or endogenous) and break it into metabolites, or smaller substances. CYP450 enzymes have iron and oxygen in them, and through a redox reaction can make a substance more polar. Polar molecules are more hydrophilic (likes water) and can be eliminated through the kidneys.
Phase 1 involves the following SNPs or polymorphisms in the genes you inherited from your parents. A SNP in one of these genes can mean that the enzymes is faster or slower than normal.
You can inherit genes under one of three conditions:
1. You inherited the perfect level of the enzyme (homozygous normal – the optimal genomic potential).
2. You inherited one bad allele and one good allele (heterozygous, usually a 30-50% decrement or increase in enzyme activity).
3. You inherited both bad alleles, one bad from each parent (homozygous, usually with a 70-90% reduction or increase in the activity of that enzyme).
The CYP450 family is a large family of enzymes but here are some of the more important ones:
CYP1A1 – metabolism of oestrogen, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and more. Genetic variant in this gene mean that the action is sped up, thus increasing risk of toxicity.
CYP1A2 – metabolism of caffeine, Cymbalta, Welbutrin, aflatoxin B, and more.
CYP1B1 – metabolism of oestrogen and xenoestrogens. A polymorphism is associated with increased enzyme activity, therefore increased production of these potentially harmful metabolites.
CYP2A6 – metabolism of nicotine, coumarin, and more. The hormone oestradiol is an inducer of CYP2A6, and women usually have a somewhat higher activity of this enzyme.
Phase 2 Detoxification
Phase 2 detoxification involves taking the metabolites of phase 1 and changing them so that they can be safely excreted. Sometimes the metabolites of phase 1 are carcinogenic or reactive, so having phase 2 detox is very important.
The main Phase 2 detoxification genes are:
COMT and MTHFR are the main methylation genes. SNPs in either of these will reduce enzyme function and slow methylation of toxins. Magnesium, B vitamins and cruciferous vegetables all support these genes
GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 are part of the glutathione transferase family of genes. There are either SNPSs or, the gene is simply there or not there (this is called an insertion and deletion). SNPs in these genes can be supported with a diet high in cruciferous vegetables and a lifestyle that is low in toxins.
NQ01 is Quinone reductase and supports phase 2 detoxification by recycling toxic intermediaries until they can be bound to a GST and removed by the body. It is nicknamed the ‘recycler’. NQ01 is very well supported by sulforaphane.
SULT1A1 is a compensatory phase 2 pathway, taking up the excess when methylation and glutathione conjugation are taxed. It is dependent on sulphate availability.
NAT – N-acetyltransferase is a phase 2 detoxification enzyme that helps to metabolise aromatic amines, drugs, cigarette smoke and carcinogens. Basically, it makes specific toxins more water soluble so that they can be excreted through a process called acetylation. Toxin avoidance is important if you have this SNP.
Toxin avoidance and a diet rich in supporting phytonutrients, amino acids, vitamins and minerals can support these SNPs and ensure a healthy outcome no matter the state of the genes!
By Dr Shania Lee
Dr Shania Lee is a Functional medicine practitioner, Complementary Alternative Medical Doctor and an AFMCP Graduate currently in the process of getting her IFMCP.
She is also a lecturer and has designed an online course for practitioners interested in female health called "Female health from Alpha (A) to Omega (Z)". The 4th module (of 9) focuses on the genetics of oestrogen metabolism.
Female health from Alpha to Omega group:
BCNH students can get 50% off using the following link: radiantbalance.co.uk/female-health-discount/ using the code OESTROGEN (until the end of January 2019)
"I actually love Monday mornings!"
bcnh graduate interview
1. What did you do before you decided to study Nutritional Therapy with BCNH?
I worked in marketing first before becoming self-employed and spent a few years doing consultancy work and got a taste for being my own boss. I enjoyed it but I couldn’t see myself in that career for the rest of my working life. I wanted to do something I was passionate about and also something that would benefit myself and my family and become a hobby as well as a job. My favourite quote is “If you do what you love, you'll never work a day in your life”. And that has been pretty true so far. I actually love Monday mornings!
2. Tell us a little about your career since graduating from BCNH
Luckily my husband who is an optometrist, and myself had just bought an opticians practice in Cheltenham so I had a room waiting for me the moment I graduated. Our practice is set over 4 floors and also includes paediatric behavioural optometry, vision therapy and audiology. Not only did I have a room but also a client base as there is a lot of synergy with eye health and nutrition. All of my patients initially came from referrals within the practice so I got to dive straight in.
3. Do you have any exciting career plans for the future you can share with us?
I am always thinking up new and exciting plans for the future. I love seeing patients, but I feel it is important to also diversify and have other lines of work too, as one to ones can be pretty draining. I have expanded into corporate work and have also joined forces with colleagues to set up health retreats. I am establishing connections with other health professionals to work together on cases and collaborate on joint projects.
The key is to network, attend conferences and seminars and get yourself known in the industry. That has opened so many doors for me and set me up for some exciting future projects. Don’t wait until you qualify, do it now so that as soon as you get your certificate you can jump right in.
4. What does a typical day / week look like for you?
I don’t think there’s such a thing as a typical week when you’re a nutritional therapist. Some weeks are spent seeing patients, others are spent researching new cases, or working on corporate wellness projects or pitching to businesses. I am doing a talk soon to 100 business people on stress, sleep and optimising health through lifestyle and nutrition. I attend as many conferences as I can as they are a great way to learn but also to meet up with colleagues. I have regular Skype chats with other Nutritional therapists and doctors to talk through cases which is invaluable.
5. What do you like most about being a Nutritional Therapist?
I love dealing with tricky cases, those who have been to many specialists but have not been able to get to the bottom of their health issues. Being a nutritional therapist is a bit like being a detective and once you have gathered all the information, it’s fun to piece together the complex scenario and come up with a plan and start to see results. So many people see specialists and what they really need are generalists who can look at the big picture and put the puzzle pieces together. A lot of the time it’s actually quite simple. Sleep, and stress are two of biggest things I work on first as these can have such dramatic effects on the health of the individual. Sometimes I don’t even have to change their diet that much. It’s important to look at what is really having the biggest affect and work on that first, rather than adding in an extra portion or two of broccoli!
6. What do you find hardest about being a Nutritional Therapist?
Wanting to help everyone you meet who has a health complaint!
It can be so frustrating when you know what someone can do to help themselves but also know that they are not ready or willing to make the changes.
7. What would your one piece of advice be for budding BCNH students?
Try and think beyond the course and visualise your new career and what you will do when you graduate. Make plans now to set up your future business, whether that is starting to think about marketing, building a website or hiring a business coach to walk you through the steps. It’s also a nice distraction from constant essay writing, lectures and case studies and makes you realise what it is really all about. It’s a very exciting career to be in, especially in the current climate where everyone seems to be interested in nutrition.
Joanna Keogh, BSc (Hons), DipBCNH, MBANT, CNHC
Registered Nutritional Therapist
"So many people see specialists and what they really need are generalists who can look at the big picture and put the puzzle pieces together"
Turn Your Passion into Reality!
BCNH offers the following courses:
Level 6 Diploma in Nutritional Therapy: a 4-year part-time course, credit-rated by University of Greenwich
Level 6 Diploma in Nutrition & Health: a 3-year part-time course, credit-rated by University of Greenwich
Science Foundation Course: a part-time course suitable for candidates who do not have an A Level in Chemistry / Biology (or equivalent)
Nutrition Basics: a basic short course for the members of public who wish to learn how to improve their diet and lifestyle.
Once again, the BCNH team would also like to thank Jennifer’s family for their generous gift in her memory and wish them all a Merry Christmas.
Szilvia (pictured left) was nominated by her Year 2 student mentee, Amanda Saunders, who told us the following:
“I would like to nominate my year 3 mentor, Szilvia Molnar. I don’t want to divulge too many of her personal details, but suffice to say her life completely changed during the last academic year, and she has had to move house and job, and make a new life for herself. During that time, despite her personal troubles, she still found time to support me when I was struggling with my broken ankle and illness at the same time as trying to prep for our last exam and submit an essay. She was wonderful, reassuring me that I would be ok, and that I would do better than I thought I was going to (she was right!!). And, she kept on track with her own studies, as well as working full time – her calm approach despite everything is an inspiration.”
Szilvia is a quiet and capable student who simply 'gets on' and completes all of her work to a good standard and, as such, we were not aware of any personal difficulties until she was nominated by Amanda.
Sylvia passed on her thanks to Amanda and Jennifer’s family and told us:
“I am truly moved and humbled by this feedback. I did go through a hard time which still has an effect on my present, but I would like to believe that all experiences and changes will guide me to something better. It actually made me cry a little to read this, because it just feels so nice to be appreciated and know that someone notices when you are trying to do your best, even if it is not easy.”
BCNH GIFT: in memory of jennifer Sturman
BCNH is delighted to announce that Szilvia Molnar, a Year 3 student, will be the recipient of a generous gift donated to the college in memory of one of our students, Jennifer Sturman (pictured right).
Jennifer was passionate about the course, well-liked by all her peers and an exceptionally dedicated and talented student. Sadly, Jennifer suffered from an illness that was ultimately insurmountable and her family have made this gift in Jennifer's memory so that some element of her hard work and enthusiasm can be continued by helping another student progress through the course.
I’ve cleared my kitchen of plastic containers and bought glass ones with sealable lids (Ikea do good ones)
I’ve replaced my plastic water bottle with a metal one from One Green Bottle and bought a bamboo travel cup from Ecoffee.
When I travel, I use little glass jam jars for creams and liquids instead of plastic too.
I ditched the clingfilm and plastic storage bags, instead using wax paper wrap and paper bags from Lakeland.
I get a weekly organic veg box delivery and buy organic meat from the local farm shop.
In the bathroom I ditched lots of non-natural products. I found a range called Attitude from the Natural Dispensary for shampoo and shower gel. It is made from coconut extracts (but does not smell like coconut), froths nicely, and is not very expensive compared to some brands.
Year 3 student, Sarah
I avoid tap water in old buildings as the pipes can be very old and may contain some lead.
Check dental amalgam fillings, which can leach mercury.
Remove all plastic and aluminium storage boxes from the kitchen to reduce toxin and heavy metal exposure. Coke or other beverages in cans are another toxin source.
I don’t use Teflon coated pots and pans in the kitchen.
Avoid deodorant containing aluminium.
Nail polish should also be considered as a source of toxin exposure.
Year 1 student, Sandra
We asked BCNH students for their handy tips on how they reduce exposure to environmental toxins. Here are some of their suggestions.
student CORNER: DETOX TIPS
I live in small village surrounded by beautiful countryside and I’m fortunate to be able to go out regularly to breathe fresh air circulating around the trees and plants. I don’t know how effective this is as a detox, but it feels like it works!
Meditation is my other detox habit, and this provides the space to declutter the noise created by work, study, social media, news, chores, people in general. Being mindful and present is a great way to detox all those thoughts, making me more physically able to cope with any other toxins I encounter.
Year 2 student, Amanda
I try to buy the so-called "Dirty Dozen" fruits and veggies organically, where possible
I try to buy store cupboard ingredients like passata and beans in glass jars rather than tins or plastic cartons
Before using crockery washed in the dishwasher, I will give it a quick rinse under the tap
I buy mineral water in glass bottles if I need to, otherwise I just filter tap water
I use less toxic cleaning products around the house e.g. white vinegar, bicarbonate of soda, lemon juice and, if I need a ’product,’ I use ‘Method’ stuff
Instead of using bubble baths, I sprinkle in a few drops of an essential oil e.g. lavender
I use (more) natural deodorants
I now avoid buying ‘dry clean only’ clothes.
If walking in the City, I will always choose a route through the back streets where possible, avoiding major routes clogged with traffic Year 2 student, Harriet
Every morning I have warm lemon water upon waking.
I have a glass bottle I carry around for water. No plastic for me.
I drink at least a litre of water daily and I stay away from processed foods and refined sugar, even honey.
I try to eat organic and purchase grass fed meat for my family.
Usually twice a year I do a liver cleanse or "detox" (usually January and late spring/early summer).
I’ve purged literally every chemical in my house. Out went shampoos and deep conditioners I bought at the salon. Out went most perfume. Out went cleaning products besides vinegar and baking soda.
I use very little on my skin. I oil cleanse from time to time and use shea butter if I need lotion.
I've been making my own deodorant for years and I want to know everything that goes on my skin. I kind of see it as not listening to marketing! Year 2 student, Courtney
Certain toxic metals are known as metalloestrogens, however, they do not have an oestrogen-like effect in the body.
Some heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), are known to play a role in the development of various diseases including cancers.
Which of the following toxic metals have been found in baby food?
Coriander, also known as Chinese parsley, has been shown to suppress lead deposition in the body.
Click here for answers
Which of the following foods have been shown to protect against toxic metal accumulation in the body?
d) green tea
e) all of the above
Many toxic elements appear to be preferentially excreted through sweat, therefore a sauna can help reduce the accumulation of toxic elements in the body.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental contaminant, resulting mainly from manufacturing, use or disposal of plastics. Research supports the view that BPA acts like a hormone in the body, disrupting normal hormone levels
c) Not sure
High exposure to pesticides is associated with which of the following?
a) breast cancer
b) uterine fibroids
c) underactive thyroid
d) weight gain
e) all of the above
Air pollution is the release of pollutants such as sulphur dioxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter into the atmosphere from:
a) motor vehicle exhaust
b) organic pesticides
b) industrial emissions
c) the burning of coal and wood
Lead competes with iron for absorption in the gut, thus contributing to iron deficiency anaemia.
Cleansing & Detoxification
1. Grun F, Blumberg B. Perturbed nuclear receptor signaling by environmental obesogens as emerging factors in the obesity crisis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2007 Jun;8(2):161-71.
2. Carpenter DO. Environmental contaminants as risk factors for developing diabetes. Rev Environ Health. 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):59-74
3. DeBruin LS et al. Perspectives on the chemical aetiology of breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 February; 110(Suppl 1): 119–128.
4. Rier S, Foster WG. Environmental dioxins and endometriosis. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):161-70.
5. Cooper GS et al. Occupational risk factors for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2004 Oct;31(10):1928-33.
6. Torrente M et al. Metal concentrations in hair and cognitive assessment in an adolescent population. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Jun;104(3):215-21.
7. Campbell A et al. Chronic exposure to aluminum in drinking water increases inflammatory parameters selectively in the brain. J Neurosci Res. 2004 Feb 15;75(4):565-72.
8. Dunstan RH et al. A preliminary investigation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med J Aust. 1995 Sep 18;163(6):294-7.
9. Cohen M. Environmental toxins and health--the health impact of pesticides. Aust Fam Physician. 2007 Dec;36(12):1002-4.
10. Stackelberg PE, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Henderson AK, Reissman DB. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant. Sci Total Environ. 2004 Aug 15;329(1-3):99-113.
11. B. C. Wolverton, Anne Johnson, and Keith Bounds, "Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement, Final Report — September 15, 1989." Stennis Space Center, Mississippi: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Contact: NASA, John C. Stennis Space Center, Science and Technology Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-6000.
12. Dabre PD. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. J Inorg Biochem. 2005 Sep;99(9):1912-9.
13. Furst A. Can nutrition affect chemical toxicity? Int J Toxicol. 2002. Sep-Oct;21(5):419-24.
14. Liska DJ. The detoxification enzyme systems. Altern Med Rev. 1998. Jun;3(3):187-98.
15. Lampe JW. Health effects of vegetables and fruit: assessing mechanisms of action in human experimental studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):475S-490S.
16. Lampe JW, Peterson S. Brassica, biotransformation and cancer risk: genetic npolymorphisms alter the preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables. J Nutr. 2002 Oct;132(10):2991-4.
17. Jéquier E, Constant F. Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep 2. [Epub ahead of print]
18. Lim CC, Ferguson LR, Tannock GW. Dietary fibres as "prebiotics": implications for colorectal cancer. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Jun;49(6):609-19.
19. Kaefer CM, Milner JA. The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Jun;19(6):347-61.
20. Kop J. Chemical sensitivity after intoxication at work with solvents: response to sauna therapy. J Altern Complement Med. 1998;4(1):77-86.
21. Nakano S et al. Chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) supplementation decreases dioxin and increases immunoglobulin a concentrations in breast milk. J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):134-42.
23. Sanders ME, Klaenhammer TR. Invited review: the scientific basis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM functionality as a probiotic. J Dairy Sci. 2001 Feb;84(2):319-31.
24. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. http://chm.pops.int
We hope you enjoyed the latest edition of the BCNH newsletter. We would love to hear your comments, suggestion and questions, which we aim to incorporate in future editions.
Simply get in touch: email@example.com
We look forward to hearing from you all!
Breda & Gemma
2. e) all of the above - Pesticides pose a public health concern because of their ubiquitous presence in the living and working environments, and their biological activity. Because of their widespread use in agriculture, people are exposed to low levels of pesticide residues through their diets, and a variety of other settings including homes, schools, hospitals, and workplaces.
3. a, c & d
4. a) true - Research shows that saunas could be a potentially a safe method for reducing the burden of toxic elements in the body, without risk of kidney damage.
5. a) Arsenic - High concentrations of arsenic have been found in some rice-based foods and drinks used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, infants and young children should avoid rice drinks.
6. a) true
7. b) false - Certain toxic metal ions such as mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, and tin (metalloestrogens) have been found to have oestrogen like effects in the body. These metals mimic oestrogen in the body and have been shown to increase the proliferation of cells which are dependent on oestrogen for growth such as uterine cells.
8. e) all of the above - Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to protect their cells from heavy metal toxicity, including the synthesis of metal chelating proteins which capture the metals, preventing them damaging cellular structures
9. a) true
10. a) true
Plant chemicals in Chinese parsley have been shown to suppress lead deposition in the body due to their lead chelation properties.