JUNE 2018 NEWSLETTER
DON'T miss our 2018 open MORNINGS . Click here for more information
Page 3: BCNH Open Morning Information
Page 4: Skin Malignancies - mechanisms and aspects of prevention, Dr Carol A Granger
Page 7: Food in Focus - Fennel
Page 8: BCNH Graduate Spotlight
Page 11: Do you need a 'Digital Detox' holiday?
Page 13: BCNH Student Travel Tips
Page 15: 7 Tips for a Healthier Barbecue
Page 17: Quiz
Page 18: Pets Corner
Page 19: References
Page 20: Quiz Answers
A very warm welcome to the June BCNH newsletter and my first issue as editor. I am looking forward to bringing you lots of articles and features which I hope you will find both interesting and informative. However, I am keen to hear about any ideas of what you would like to see in future issues so please don’t hesitate to contact me at email@example.com.
With summer fast approaching, and holidays and relaxation on our minds, this issue focuses on remaining healthy whilst on the move and in the sun and we start with an informative article on sun exposure and skin cancers by one of our lecturers, Dr Carol Granger, on page 4.
Summer is the ideal opportunity to recharge and our ‘Digital Detox’ article considers the benefits of taking a break from the pressures of modern life.
BCNH students have been sharing tips on how they manage to keep in good health whilst away from home and we also have a handy feature on how to enjoy healthier barbecues.
Finally, if you’re considering a career change into Nutritional Therapy, now is the time to think about enrolment on a BCNH course for the next academic year. If you’re wondering whether to take the leap, we have a number of BCNH graduate stories on page 8, all of whom have formed rewarding and successful new careers.
In the meantime, I’d like to wish you all a very happy and healthy summer.
OPEN mornings and online course webinars
The best way to get a feel for what BCNH is to come and visit us on our Open Mornings. This will give you the chance to find out more about the academic and clinical work you will experience at BCNH, in addition to the career options that will be open to you as a graduate of our college.
During the Open Mornings you will have the opportunity to learn more about the courses we offer, experience the UCL campus and facilities (where BCNH lectures and seminars take place) and also ask questions of staff members, current students and graduates.
2018 OPEN MORNING DATES
Tuesday 12th June: 10am-1pm
Saturday 7th July: 10am-1pm
Can't attend in person?
Our next online course webinar is on Saturday 23rd June, 10am - 12pm
You can register for all our events via our Eventbrite page.
Please note that places are on a first come, first served basis.
If you are not able to attend one of these dates, it is possible to book an interview / friendly chat with a member of our team via Skype or in person at our offices in NW3.
To sign up to our mailing list and receive details of Open Days, new courses and the BCNH Newsletter, please click here and make sure you check the 'Email' box to give us permission to contact you. We promise we’ll never share your details with a third party and we will try to send you only things you’re really interested in.
FEATURE: skin malignancies - Mechanisms and aspects of prevention By Dr. Carol A Granger, DProf MSc MRSB CBiol FBant
Dr Granger is a registered nutritional therapist and post-doctoral researcher, practicing in London and Sussex. She is also qualified in biochemistry and microbiology, and has worked in various healthcare roles throughout her career, including microbiology research, clinical diagnostics, intravenous nutrition technology and human tissue banking. Her doctoral research, at the University of Westminster, explored the practice of nutritional therapy for people affected by cancer. Carol is also chair of NTEC, the accreditation body for training in nutritional therapy and a trustee of the Research Council for Complementary Medicine. We are also delighted to have Carol as a Year 3 guest lecturer.
Cancers are a leading cause of death, responsible for over 8 million deaths annually worldwide(1) . Skin cancers are increasing in prevalence, due to several factors including lifestyle and greater human longevity. Modifiable risk factors for skin cancer are documented (2) and this brief review will consider some of the mechanisms involved in modifiable risks of exposure to sunlight and tanning beds.
Two types of skin cancer
Skin cancers can be divided into two categories – cutaneous melanoma (CM) and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). There are significant differences in aetiology, pathology, and mortality rates of these two types.
NMSCs comprise two cancers, basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas, SCC, (3). Basal cells may be considered as skin stem cells, also producing squamous cells.
CM affects melanocytes, pigment-producing cells located in the dermis. Although CM incidence is only around 10% of all skin cancers, the mortality rate is 8 times higher than for NMSC (3). A common risk factor for all skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from solar and artificial sources. UVR comprises different wavelengths and those penetrating the earth’s atmosphere from solar radiation are UVA and UVB, which differ in their effects on skin cells and the role they play in the development of skin cancer (4).
UVA and UVB
UVB, wavelength 300-320nm, is directly absorbed by DNA, triggering covalent bonding between adjacent pyrimidine (mostly thymine) DNA bases. These pyrimidine dimers represent lesions in the DNA chain, disrupting normal DNA function and control, and there are intrinsic repair mechanisms that should deal with them by excision repair. However, when the normal ‘detect and repair’ mechanisms are overwhelmed, or are themselves faulty, defective DNA persists. This can result in the activation of oncogenes or silencing of protective tumour-suppressor genes (3, 5).
UVA, wavelength 320-400nm, was previously considered ‘safer’ than UVB in terms of skin cancer risk. However, it is now recognised as inflicting additional damage to DNA by inducing the production of two reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and superoxide. These combine to produce highly reactive peroxynitrite, which induces degradation of melanin. Particles of degraded melanin then damage DNA by producing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) (5). Therefore melanin itself acts as a vector for the energy of photons from sunlight, undergoing chemiexcitation to become an intracellular carcinogen. Recently it was demonstrated that CPDs persist in melanocytes for several hours, with more than half arising after UVR exposure (5). CPD damage may be more significant in cells containing pheomelanin, the pigment responsible for red and blonde hair, contributing to 2-4 times greater risk for CM in blondes and redheads (6). Furthermore, in addition to DNA damage targeting pyrimidine bases, UVA induces purine base oxidation via the generation of ROS (7).
Risk factors and antioxidants
Having recognised that ROS generation is central to DNA damage by UVR, it would seem logical that antioxidant nutrients may be helpful for prevention. In vitro research suggests vitamin E may ameliorate UVA induced skin damage (7), leading to recommendation that vitamin E could be added to sunscreens and after-sun skin products. Sufficient dietary intake of antioxidants would also be a prudent measure for this and other health benefits. Drinking coffee (but not decaffeinated) may be associated with a lower risk of skin cancers (8-11), whereas alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for melanomas (12). Obesity and some gene variants in vitamin D biology are independent risk factors for CM (13).
Research suggests that tanning bed use is associated with an increased risk of CM (14) and therefore avoidance of use would be prudent for those seeking to reduce CM risk.
Moderate sunlight exposure may be beneficial for many for the cutaneous production of vitamin D and associated with lower all-cause mortality (15), therefore controlled exposure avoiding burning would appear to be an evidence-based approach, ideally personalised advice based on family history, skin type and hair colour.
Sunscreens may provide some protection by either physical reflection afforded by minerals such as zinc oxide or titanium dioxide, or organic compounds such as cinnamates and para-amino benzoic acid derivatives, however these latter compounds may be associated with photo-allergy and endocrine disruption (16). New formulations of mineral nanoparticles may provide a cosmetically improved product, that appears less white on the skin compared with micro-particle mineral screens, but safety and efficacy data are as yet incomplete (17).
In conclusion, UVR from solar and tanning bed exposure inflicts damage on skin by a number of mechanisms induced by both UVA and UVB, and damage persists long after exposure has ended. People with red and blond hair are at greater risk due to melanin pigment type. Vitamin E acting as an antioxidant may ameliorate some of the damage. Some solar UV exposure appears beneficial for generation of vitamin D, and sunscreens containing micro-particle mineral ingredients and vitamin E may provide some protection, followed by a suitable vitamin E containing after-sun product.
REFERENCES - page 19 or click here
Last weekend, Year 3 students were lucky enough to have Dr Granger teach them on the topic of 'Nutritional Therapy in Cancer'. As always, the lecture was very well received and the following is an example of student feedback:
"This was an almost perfect lecture. I thoroughly enjoyed it and it was worth staying in both days to watch it live"
To find out more about course coverage, contact firstname.lastname@example.org for our prospectus, or register for one of our open mornings or online course webinars via Eventbrite
Baked Salmon with Fennel and Tomatoes by BBC Good Food
'a tasty and easy family supper'
FOOD IN FOCUS - FENNEL
Fennel and Tomato Gratin by Barney Desmazery and recommended by BCNH student Jennifer Swallow - 'I adapted this recipe by using wholegrain bread instead of white and added walnuts into the gratin mix'
With a distinct sweet aniseed flavour and both plant and seed purported to have a host of nutritional health benefits, fennel is in season right now. Fennel is high in the antioxidant vitamin C, therefore offering immune system support. In addition to a high fibre content, fennel is reported as having a calmative action on the digestive system and may be of benefit for issues such as gas, bloating and colic. Furthermore, it contains the aromatic compound anethole, which is reported to have both anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory actions. Fennel is also a rich source of nitrates, thus aiding vasodilation (relaxation of blood vessels), and may therefore assist in the alleviation of high blood pressure
Fennel pairs well with : Fish - orange - garlic - tomato - sweet potato - thyme - lemon - apple - olive oil
A delicious and easy fennel juice recipe
by BCNH student, Eleanor Taylor
1 Apple (granny smith)
2 pear (any is fine as long as they're ripe)
1/2 bulb fennel
1/2 lime juice
Claire Kimber, Dip BCNH, BSc, mBANT, CNHC
Claire graduated in 2014 with the BCNH Diploma and a BSc from the University of Greenwich. She runs a nutritional therapy practice in South West England, with a particular interest in nutrition for performance and energy management. Claire is also a Corporate Nutritionist for Super Wellness, a company which specialises in nutrition-centred employee wellness, and offers a range of corporate wellbeing programmes, workshops and seminars. Claire is passionate about nutritional education and coaching and works with a local school delivering talks on Nutrition for (Sports) Performance and runs fun and interactive lessons on Sports Nutrition and Hydration to support their Sports and Exercise Science BTEC award. Earlier this year, Claire was invited to talk on BBC Radio Somerset about the pitfalls of the New Year ‘fad’ diets and the benefits of eating a healthy balanced diet
Elizabeth Houston, Dip BCNH, mBANT, CNHC
Elizabeth Houston Graduated in 2011 with a BCNH Diploma in Nutritional Therapy.
Shortly after qualifying, Elizabeth worked alongside Dr Marilyn Glenville in her Tunbridge Wells clinic, offering one to one Nutritional consultations and running their 'fat around the middle' 12 week course. After the birth of her third child she now manages her clients around her busy family life working part time in a multidiscipline wellness clinic in Tonbridge alongside therapists such as acupuncture, reflexologists and osteopaths. Elizabeth has run several weight loss courses and provides one to one consultations, wellness checks and group sessions.
With summer approaching, we are looking forward to welcoming a new cohort of nutritional therapy students to the BCNH family in September. This is a very exciting time to be studying with us, as the benefits of healthy nutrition and lifestyle practices become more widely talked about and accepted by both the general public and the medical profession.
With our intensive clinical training, BCNH graduates leave our care fully equipped to deliver one-to-one consultations and for many, this is their main profession. However the opportunities for a well-trained nutritional therapist are ever expanding. Many of our graduates juggle clinical practice alongside corporate work, teaching, writing and, for example, recipe development. With this in mind, we thought now would be a perfect time to share with our readers a quick snapshot of how just some of our graduates are using their qualification.
Kate Osborne, Dip BCNH, MSc, mBANT, CNHC
Kate Osborne graduated from BCNH in 2006 with a Diploma in Nutritional Therapy and went on to run a nutrition clinic in Islington. She then studied for an MSc in Person Centered Nutrition which she completed in 2015. Kate joined Genova Diagnostics Clinical Education Team in 2016 where she educates clinicians on how to use functional testing. This involves lecturing for colleges and for BANT, running webinars and giving clinicians one-to-one support over the phone. She is also part of Calmer Clinics, a multi-disciplinary clinic based in Pimlico where she specializes in gut health and hormone health.
Lisa Blair, BA Hons, Dip BCNH, mBANT, CNHC
Lisa graduated in 2007 and began working at The Food Doctor Clinic, where she remained until 2016 when the clinic closed. She has also consulted at the Optimum Health Clinic, a highly specialised and integrated centre that focuses on chronic fatigue / ME and now has her own busy clinical practice in London's West End. Lisa also puts her previous career as a management consultant to good use and works with corporate clients e.g. offering brand consultancy, talks and webinars as well as health related content for written communications (e.g. websites). Lisa has also completed the foundational module with the Institute of Functional Medicine in addition to their Advanced Gastrointestinal and Nutrition modules
Sophie Leicester, BA Hons BSc Hons Dip BCNH mBANT, CNHC
Since graduation, Sophie has focused primarily on working one-to-one with clients in Sheffield, specialising in helping people with weight management issues and / or digestive disorders, such as IBS.
Sophie now has a busy nutrition practice and offers a number of different health packages for clients. Sophie also complements her clinical practice with corporate work, including for a retirement village and a neurological hospice, and regularly delivers public workshops on various aspects of health.
FIND OUT MORE ON OUR WEBSITE www.bcnh.co.uk
Katharine Farewell, MSc, Dip BCNH, mBANT, CNHC
Katharine trained at BCNH after completion of an MSc in Human Nutrition, where she co-authored a published paper about obesity in children. Kat was looking for a Nutritional Therapy qualification which would give her the experience and background necessary to apply a personalised approach to nutrition. Since graduation, Kat works as a registered nutritional therapist in Brighton, specialising in Sports Nutrition and offering a range of different packages for clients.
Although the smartphone has only been in our lives for just over a decade, these gadgets have infiltrated and revolutionised every aspect of our daily living, enabling us to be better connected to friends and family, providing information at our fingertips, saving time and providing us with an ‘app’ for just about everything you can think of.
Smartphone ownership and usage has increased exponentially and recent statistics show that the average person checks their phone approximately 221 times a day, starting before we even get out of bed(1)! With an average of 3 hours 16 minutes being spent on our phones each day(1), what might we be missing out on?
A new term, nomophobia (“no mobile phone” phobia), has even been coined and can be defined as anxiety, discomfort, nervousness or anguish caused by being out of contact with a mobile phone(2). If you want to test how addicted you are to your smartphone, you can access a questionnaire devised by researchers at Iowa State University(3) here
Despite the advantages a smartphone can bring us, a growing body of evidence associates excessive smart phone usage with a wide array of adverse physical, psychological, social and neurological effects in both adults and children(4,5,6). These negative effects include reduced physical activity, activation of the sympathetic nervous system (our fight-flight response), sleep deprivation, reduced working memory, narrower concentration spans, obesity, depression and suicidal behaviour.
As more people become aware of the effects of excessive smartphone usage on our health, the demand for “digital detox” holidays and retreats is increasing. But are these the best solution for restoring better balance? How likely is a short break from technology really going to improve your relationship with your gadgets? Is this just the equivalent of going on a fad diet for a week? Perhaps the best way to really have a healthy relationship with technology is to make a long-term change.
WELLBEING FEATURE: Do you need a “Digital Detox” holiday?
By Beverley Shergold, BCNH Head of Education, BA, DipBCNH, mBANT, CNHC
The best way to unplug
1. Be conscious of how much time you are spending on your device – use an app to track your online time and activity e.g. Quality Time – My Digital Diet, OFFTIME – Life or SaveMyTime
2. Question “why” every time you reach for your phone – distraction? Boredom? Security blanket in social situations?
3. Involve your friends / partner / family – as with any goal, sharing what you are doing (and why) can make it easier to stick to. Friends can also help to ‘police’ you when your good habits start to slip
4. Schedule screen-free “me” time – at least 15 minutes, twice a day – get out in nature, cycle, walk, do some gardening, painting, singing, dancing, read a book, sit in a café and observe your surroundings – anything that lifts your spirit and allows you to be more aware of your surroundings. Even better, take up a new hobby or try something you have always wanted to do
5. Schedule the time of day that you want to check your social media, emails etc. and stick to it. Delete social media apps from your phone, accessing them only from a desktop computer
6. Change routine / habits if necessary – if you find that certain situations or certain times of the day prompt you to use the internet or social media, try to break those habits.
7. Keep your phone out of sight – e.g. in meetings, meals with friends, during your commute. Place your phone in a central place when you return home (rather than carrying it around) and remove it from your room at night (buy an alarm clock!)
REFERENCES on page 19 or click here
Avoid eating on the plane, eat beforehand and stick to water - a great opportunity for intermittent fasting!
If airplane food is the only option, request a special meal since these are cooked in smaller quantities - kosher, gluten free, Indian and vegan are good options (beware of vegetarian, they are usually some kind of pasta with dairy)
Always take food with you
Take some tea bags and ask for hot water
(Vanessa Buchheim, Y4 student)
"My top tip is to go self-catering...Airbnb is awesome and so cheap. I use the local markets for shopping - the fresh produce is usually brilliant and I'll rustle up an invention of the local foods"
(Eleanor Taylor, Y1 Student)
"I avoid airplane food where possible and take a salad with me - with dressing at the bottom and the fresh, crunchy vegetables on top so I can mix when I'm ready"
(Jennifer Swallow, Y2 Student)
I always book a room with a fridge and read about the local cuisine before I travel
On day of travel I pack some fruit and nuts in case I can't find something suitable when out and about
When abroad, the first thing I enjoy doing is visit the grocery store to stock up on fresh produce
I always check restaurant menus on-line before I visit
I always pack my trainers - I find running a great way to explore new places and keep my fitness levels up wherever I am.
(Kelly Tassi, Y3 student)
STUDENT FEATURE : HEALTHY TRAVEL TIPS
Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle whilst away from home can be a challenge. We asked BCNH students for their best tips on how to eat well and avoid bugs whilst on their travels and these are some of their suggestions.
"Nuts are useful to improvise a snack, particularly for those who do not eat gluten.
I always travel with probiotics and a vitamin C supplement in case of a holiday bug"
(Year 3 student)
"When I travel, I make sure my supplements come along with me as well as my Vick's Vapour Rub and tea tree essential oil (just in case I should pray victim to a holiday bug)
I give myself permission to eat foods that I don't normally have and reserve for holidays. I truly enjoy them because I have them once a year overlooking beautiful scenery, spending time with my precious family. The joy I feel produces endorphins, which have anti-inflammatory properties; coupled with not feeling stressed, I am convinced keep me healthy on holiday. I know that once I get back to London, things will get back to normal therefore I can really savour the experience - and that must be good for my immune system!" (Tricia Allen, Y4 student)
BCNH NUTRITION EDUCATION
We are really excited to share a new video series with all of our followers, the BCNH A-Z of Nutritious Foods.
Each week, Zahra Browne, one of our final year student practitioners, will highlight the nutritional benefits of specific foods and explain how to easily incorporate each one into your diet.
'A' is for Avocado
Watch the rest of the series on YouTube or by following us on Facebook or Twitter
7 WAYS TO HAVE A HEALTHIER BARBECUE By Beverley Shergold, BCNH Head of Education, BA, DipBCNH, mBANT, CNHC
ere in the UK, we love a barbecue when the sun is shining! However increasing evidence shows that not only are people at risk of food poisoning from barbecued foods1, but that this method of cooking also increases the number of carcinogenic compounds in some of the foods we eat.
What are the dangers?
Barbecuing meat, fish and poultry results in the increased formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs). These are carcinogenic compounds formed from creatine or creatinine, amino acids and sugars during high temperature cooking (>150oC)2. The higher the temperature and the longer the exposure to heat, the greater the HCA formation, with well-done meat having a higher concentration of HCAs2
Barbecued meats also contain greater amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)3, which are formed from smoke and the burning of fat. PAHs can be present in food as a result of contamination
from environmental sources (e.g. vehicle exhausts, coal burning, wildfires) but are also formed in meat when cooked at high temperature (e.g. barbecuing and grilling)4
Although HCAs and PAHs are well-known to be carcinogenic, this should not make you put away the barbecue for good! The health benefits of spending time outdoors with friends and family should not be overlooked and there are several ways to minimise the formation of these carcinogenic compounds when barbecuing.
7 Tips for a healthy barbecue
1. Consider cooking meat slowly in the oven first, “finishing off” on the barbecue. This may reduce exposure to high temperatures and also reduce charring (as well as reducing the risk of food poisoning)
2. Cook the meat as far away from the heat and flame as possible – the higher the temperature meat is cooked at, the greater the HCA formation2
3. Use a drip pan or foil to prevent fat dripping on the coals and smoking (reducing PAH formation)
4. Avoid charring meats - keep turning meat and remove charred bits before eating if possible. Removing the skin of chicken, for example, can reduce HCA exposure2
Introduction to 21st Century Nutrition (ONLINE SHORT COURSE)
Nutrition is one of the most exciting areas in science today. Discover how recent findings have turned conventional wisdom on its head.
In this series of 3 lessons our guest lecturer, Ben Brown, will explore:
How nutrition can literally transform your genetics and physiology
Why the way we think about calories, fat, protein and sugar has changed
The nutritional secrets of the healthiest and longest-lived cultures
For more details of this flexible course please visit our Eventbrite page
Watch the first 4 minutes of Lesson 1 for free via our YouTube channel
5. Marinate meat before cooking – use a combination of acids (e.g. lemon juice, vinegar), olive oil, honey and herbs and spices. Rosemary in particular has been found to reduce HCA formation when used in marinades5. Black pepper may also reduce HCA formation5
6. Serve a selection of salads – make meat the sideshow rather than the main event. Salads can be made from so many different healthy foods, not just “greens”, including pulses (e.g. puy lentil, beetroot and feta), grains (e.g. red rice, mixed seeds, courgette) and roasted vegetables. There are many recipes for nutrient-rich salad dressings that will transform any salad base.
7. Try to keep away from the barbecue smoke! There is some evidence that PAHs can also be inhaled from barbecue fumes / smoke – an often overlooked health hazard of barbecues!6
REFERENCES page 19 or click here
NEW ONLINE SHORT NUTRITION COURSE
Processed foods are high in salt but do NOT contain dietary Advanced Glycation End-products (dAGEs).
Cooking reduces the amount of lycopene in tomatoes
Boiling significantly reduces vitamin C content of vegetables
Which of the following have a higher risk of bacterial contamination?
a) Organically farmed foods
b) Conventionally farmed foods
c) The risk is similar for both organic and conventional produce
Click here for answers
Which of the following toxic substances can be formed in high temperature cooking?
b) Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
d) Heterocyclic amines (HCAs)
Using acidic marinades (e.g. lemon juice or vinegar), before cooking can limit generation of toxic chemicals called AGEs.
When meat is cooked at high temperatures, carcinogenic molecules such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are formed.
Which of the following oils are most suitable for cooking?
a) Sunflower oil
b) Extra virgin olive oil
c) Coconut oil
d) Rice bran oil
e) Avocado oil
Microwaving (e.g. potato products) may result in more acrylamide formation than other cooking methods (e.g. conventional heating)
Which of the following is used in Chinese food preparation to allow for far less salt to be used during and after cooking?
This is Larry. He is an 11-month-old kitten. He loves sleeping, chicken soup and waking up his human mummy early in the morning on Saturday. Larry is very talkative and affectionate (when he feels like it). He has a very busy schedule chasing flies, attacking curtains and scratching furniture most of the day. He prefers cotton buds and sponges over fancy toys and his favourite snack is… spinach. Magdalena, SFC & Year 1 Programme Leader
This is Mog. She is a black and white moggie that we adopted six years ago. Mog’s life is very simple: she eats, she sleeps and she chases birds – just like the famous children’s book character she was named after. She is very good at letting us know she’s hungry by getting under our feet and meowing until she’s fed. Sam Cornell - Senior Clinical Tutor
This is Teddy, a very sweet and friendly horse who will willingly try any activity, although he prefers a quiet life and his key pastime is eating. Unfortunately, he has the equine version of Metabolic Syndrome which means daily exercise and a careful watch of his waistline! Gemma, Editor.
PET'S CORNER - MEET THE FURRY FRIENDS OF BCNH STAFF
Here are my gorgeous boys - Skipper (left) and Hendrix (right).
Both are Weimeraners and seasoned runners, accompanying my husband on his ultra-marathon training. At home they are calm as cucumbers and often pop their big noses into the screen to say hello when I talk to BCNH students via Skype. It's usually their favourite time of the day because I have ample of treats to keep them entertained when I am working . Anja Springthorpe - Year 3 Tutor and Year 4 Clinical Tutor & Supervisor
This is Flora, my 4 year old Pointer and personal trainer. She is incredibly lazy about the house and has been a loyal study companion. She absolutely loves romping about the open countryside and actively sulks if she doesn't join Teddy and I out riding. Do not be fooled by her snooty appearance - given the opportunity, she will roll in anything...the more disgusting the better! Gemma, Editor
Skin Malignancies - mechanisms and aspects of prevention
1. Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2015;65(2):87-108.
2. Parkin DM, Mesher D, Sasieni P. Cancers attributable to solar (ultraviolet) radiation exposure in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:S66-9.
3. Seebode C, Lehmann J, Emmert S. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies. Anticancer Res. 2016 Mar;36(3):1371-8.
4. Johan M, Mantas G, Zivile B, Arne D, Asta J. The relationship between UV exposure and incidence of skin cancer. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2015 01/01; 2018/05;31(1):26-35.
5. Premi S, Wallisch S, Mano CM, Weiner AB, Bacchiocchi A, Wakamatsu K, et al. Photochemistry. Chemiexcitation of melanin derivatives induces DNA photoproducts long after UV exposure. Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):842-7.
6. Williams PF, Olsen CM, Hayward NK, Whiteman DC. Melanocortin 1 receptor and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis and estimates of population burden. Int J Cancer. 2011 Oct 1;129(7):1730-40.
7. Delinasios GJ, Karbaschi M, Cooke MS, Young AR. Vitamin E inhibits the UVAI induction of “light” and “dark” cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and oxidatively generated DNA damage, in keratinocytes. Scientific Reports. 2018 01/11;8(1):423.
Do You Need a 'Digital Detox' Holiday?
2. Bragazzi NL Del Puente G (2014) A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V Psychology Research & Behaviour Management 7 155-60 doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S41386
3. Yildirim C Correia A (2015) Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire Computers in Human Behaviour 49 130-137 doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.059
4. Lissak G (2018) Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: literature review and case study Environmental Research 149-157 doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.015
5. Demirci K Akgönül M Akpinar A (2015) Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression and anxiety in university students Journal of Behavioural Addictions 4 2 85-92 doi: 10.1556/2006.4.2015.010
6. Lin YH Lin YC Lin SH Lee YH Lin PH Chiang CL Chang LR Yang CC Kuo TB (2017) To use or not to use? Compulsive behaviour and its role in smartphone addiction Translational Psychiatry 7 2 e1030 doi: 10.1038/tp.2017.1
7 Ways to Have a Healthier Barbecue
2. Puangsombat K Gadgil P Houser TA Hunt MC Smith JS (2012) Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products Meat Science 90 3 739-46 doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.11.005
3. Aaslyng MD Duedahl-Olesen L Jensen K Meinert L (2013) Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers Meat Science 93 1 85-91 doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.08.004
4. Diggs DL Huderson AC Harris KL Myers JN Banks LD Rekhadevi PV Niaz MS Ramesh A (2011) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and digestive tract cancers: a perspective Journal of Environmental Science and Health 29 4 324-57 doi: 10.1080/10590501.2011.629974
5. Gibis M Weiss J (2012) Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties Food Chemistry 134 2 766-74 doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.179
6. Wu CC Bao LJ Guo Y Li SM Zeng EY (2015) Barbecue Fumes: An Overlooked Source of Health Hazards in Outdoor Settings? Environmental Science & Technology 49 17 10607-15 doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01494
1. b) c) e) The latest research suggests that extra virgin olive oil may be the safest oil for frying (proposed to be due to its fatty acid profile and antioxidant content), closely followed by coconut oil and avocado oil
2. a) These substances promote DNA mutations and cancer development
3. a) Boiling can also reduce the antioxidant components and antioxidant activity in vegetables
4. b) Lycopene is a carotenoid with many health benefits; cooking tomatoes increases the bioavailability of lycopene (by weakening bonds between lycopene and the plant tissue)
5. a) Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and a probable human carcinogen that is found in baked goods and potato products
6. a) For example, beef that was marinated for 1 hour in these solutions forms less than half the amount of AGEs during cooking than the untreated meat.
7. a) b) d)
8. b) Heat-processed foods contain high levels of dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) and may represent an important health hazard for people (especially diabetics) who consume multiple snacks or fast meals during the day.
We hope you enjoyed the latest edition of the BCNH newsletter. We would love to hear your comments, suggestion and questions, which we aim to incorporate in future editions.
Simply get in touch: email@example.com
We look forward to hearing from you all!
Breda & Gemma