DECEMBER 2017 NEWSLETTER
P.3: BCNH Open Days
P.4: World Cancer Day: What is it?
P.5: Feature: The Role of Nutrition in Colorectal Cancer. By Carol Granger
P.9: Food in Season
P.10: Cancer Quiz
P.11: Pets Corner
P.12: BCNH Gift
P.13: Q&A with BCNH lecturer Tara Hambley
P.15: Science Update with Ben Brown
P.16: Considering a Career Change in the New Year? BCNH graduate Joan Viskant talks about what inspired her to become a nutritional therapist.
P.18: BCNH Courses
P.19: Quiz answers and references
Welcome to the December edition of the BCNH newsletter - I can't believe we're almost at the end of another year!
This issue focuses on World Cancer Day on February 4th 2018, so read on to find out what it is and how you can help fight cancer, which is now the leading cause of death worldwide. Carol Granger, one of our lecturers here at BCNH has written this issue's main feature article about colorectal cancer. Do not miss it, it's an extremely informative read...
New to this issue is Pet's Corner, a light-hearted piece that will give you an insight into the furry little side-kicks of BCNH staff.
Joan Viskant, a recent graduate also talks to us about what inspired her to become a nutritional therapist as well as some inspirational tips to help kick start your possible career change in the New Year.
I hope you enjoy it. Merry Christmas and a healthy and Happy New Year to you all from myself and the BCNH team.
We hope you enjoyed the new edition of the BCNH newsletter. We would love to hear your comments, suggestion and questions, which we aim to incorporate in future editions.
Simply get in touch: email@example.com
We look forward to hearing from you all!
Breda & Joanne
The best way to get a feel for what BCNH is all about is to come and visit us on our Open Days. This will give you the chance to find out more about the academic and clinical work you will experience at BCNH, in addition to the career options that will be open to you as a graduate of our college.
At the Open Days you will have the opportunity to learn more about the courses we offer, experience the UCL campus and facilities (where BCNH lectures and seminars take place) and also ask questions of staff members
2018 OPEN DAY / OPEN EVENINGS DATES
Tuesday 23rd January: 6-8pm
Wednesday 14th March: 7-9pm
Saturday 12th May: 10am-1pm
Tuesday 12th June: 10am-12pm
Saturday 7th July: 10am-1pm
How to register your interest in attending the Open Days?
Please email firstname.lastname@example.org in order to confirm your attendance and receive further information about the event.
Please note that places are on a first come, first served basis.
If you cannot attend the Open Days, you can always book an interview / friendly chat with a member of our team via Skype or in person at our offices in NW3.
WHAT IS WORLD CANCER DAY?
SOME THINGS YOU CAN DO...
Adopt a healthy diet
Be sun smart
LEADING CANCER RISK FACTORS (4)
CANCER FACT FILE
New cancer cases (per year)
TODAY: 14m (1) 2030: 21.7m
Cancer death (per year)
TODAY: 8.8m (2) 2030: 13m
Click here for references
The international awareness day unites the world in the fight against cancer and aims to save millions of preventable deaths each year through education, raising awareness and by pressing governments and individuals across the world to take action.
For more information visit: www.worldcancerday.org
TOP 5 MOST FREQUENT CANCERS (3)
FEATURE: The Role of Nutrition in Colorectal Cancer Prevention
By Carol A Granger FBANT, Registered Nutritional Therapist
Carol Granger is a registered nutritional therapist with an honours degree in biochemistry and a Master’s in microbiology. She has been a Chartered Biologist since 1986 and had two decades of experience in bioscience research, diagnostics and medical technology. Her earliest work in nutrition was on the delivery and quality of intravenous nutrition for people with cancer and on chemical interactions between nutrients and drugs. However, a growing interest in applied nutrition led to retraining and a career change to nutritional therapy.
Carol practices in London and West Sussex and is committed to evidence-based practice, professional regulation and advancing standards in nutritional therapy. She is Chair of the Nutritional Therapy Education Commission (NTEC) which accredits training for the profession, is a trustee of the Research Council for Complementary Medicine (RCCM) and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine.
Carol’s clinical practice encompasses many areas of chronic ill-health but particularly with people affected by cancer and people with neurological conditions. She has recently concluded research for a Professional Doctorate in Health Sciences at the University of Westminster, on the practice of nutritional therapy for people affected by cancer. Carol is on the organising committee for the British Society for Integrative Oncology (BSIO), and for the last year has been involved in the National Institute of Health Research collaboration on nutrition for cancer patients.
It is increasingly recognised that diet and lifestyle influence cancer risk, particularly for cancers of the digestive system. In this review, some modifiable factors influencing the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) will be discussed.
Cancers are a leading cause of death worldwide, responsible for 14.1 million new cases and 8.1 million deaths globally in 2012 (Torre, Bray et al. 2015). Malignancy is characterised by abnormal cell division, proliferation and spread, involving genetic and epigenetic changes, resulting in changes to the processes controlling cell behaviour (Kreeger, Lauffenburger 2010). For some cancers, a pre-malignant stage is recognised, which represents an increased risk of developing frank malignancy. For example, Barrett’s oesophagus predisposes to oesophageal cancer (Kubo, Corley et al. 2010) and bowel polyps predispose to CRC (Higurashi, Hosono et al. 2016).
Genetic factors overall account for 5-10% of all cancers in the UK (Parkin 2011a). Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) (Vasen, de Vos tot Nederveen Cappel,W.H. 2011, Young, Parry 2010) are the most common genetic associations with increased risk of developing CRC, but these account for a very small percentage of cases. Most people developing any cancer, including cancers of the digestive system, will not have a currently identifiable genetic risk factor, and a number of modifiable risk factors have been identified. A study of fifteen years of data (Parkin 2011a) examined the impact of diet, alcohol, smoking, obesity, physical activity, infection, hormonal exposures and occupational exposures, on cancers in the UK. Overall, modifiable risks were estimated to be responsible for approximately 134.000 new cancer diagnoses in 2010 in the UK, including 45.3% of all cancers in men and 40.1% all cancers in women, 42.7% overall, and 50% cancer deaths (Peto 2011). Alcohol was estimated to have contributed to 3.6% all new cancers in 2010, including CRC and cancers of the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, breast and liver(Parkin 2011b). For CRC, dietary factors play a substantial role, the impact of these will now be considered.
The most comprehensive prospective study of diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study (Gonzalez, Riboli 2010), which studied half a million people across Europe, identified several risk factors for CRC. Overall, the study concluded that reducing intake of red and processed meat (Gonzalez, Riboli 2010), reducing alcohol (Sieri, Agudo et al. 2002) and increasing consumption of dietary fibre (Bingham, Day et al. 2003), vegetables and fruit (Boffetta, Couto et al. 2010)- could reduce the incidence of CRC and many other cancers. To be specific, CRC was 35% higher in those consuming 160g of red and processed meat per day, compared with those consuming less than 20g/day (Gonzalez, Riboli 2010). Considering dietary fibre intake, the relative risk of developing CRC was 0.58 for consumers of 35g fibre per day compared with 15g/day (Gonzalez, Riboli 2010). To put this into context, if the fibre intake of those in the lowest quintile of fibre intake was increased to that of the highest quintile, the risk of colorectal cancer could be reduced by 40% (Bingham, Day et al. 2003). Dietary fibre reduces the risk of CRC by multifactorial mechanisms. More rapid gut transit time reduces carcinogen exposure and assists with weight control due to increased satiety, and the presence of several micronutrients such as phytic acid and folate appear to have specific protective effects against DNA damage (Fardet 2010).
The EPIC study also illustrated the potential for interactions of modifiable cancer risks within an individual’s dietary intake. The adverse impact of low dietary fibre intake was compounded by higher red and processed meat intake (Gonzalez, Riboli 2010). Overall dietary pattern has an influence, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, which includes fish, vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, wholegrains and olive oil, was also shown to reduce the risk of developing CRC and other cancers (Couto, Boffetta et al. 2011).
The question of the role of dairy products and cancer risk may be encountered by nutrition professionals. The EPIC study concluded that the incidence of CRC was inversely associated with the intake of dairy products (Murphy, Norat et al. 2013). Within that analysis, association with different types and fat content of dairy foods was scrutinised, and the protective effect was reported to be consistent across all dairy products, and purported to be related to dietary calcium. Furthermore, an international systematic review and meta-analysis by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), of 19 cohort studies (Aune, Lau et al. 2012), concurred with the conclusions of EPIC on the protective effects of dairy foods except cheese, reporting a relative risk of 0.83 per 400g total dairy produce consumed per day, and 0.91 per 200g milk per day. In contrast with the reported protective effect of consuming dairy produce on CRC risk, however, higher dairy product intake was reported to be linked to increased risk of prostate cancer within the EPIC study (Gonzalez, Riboli 2010). This finding was reinforced by a later WCRF systematic review of 32 studies (Aune, Navarro Rosenblatt et al. 2015). This underlines the importance of personalised nutrition advice based on evaluation of individual risk.
Considering also the evidence that cancer is influenced by microbial populations within the intestine and elsewhere (de Moreno de Leblanc, Perdigon 2010), consuming fermented dairy foods is generally to be recommended for the prevention of CRC.
Diet also influences the risks of many common cancers through impact on body mass and particularly levels of body fat (adiposity) (Hursting 2012). It has been estimated that 5.5% of all new cancer cases in the UK in 2010 were attributable to overweight (Parkin, Boyd 2011) that is body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2. For some digestive system cancers, obesity has a much greater impact, accounting for 26.7% cases of oesophageal cancer in men. Obesity and particularly increased visceral or abdominal fat are linked to inflammation and to raised insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels, which display tumour-promoting behaviour, leading to tumour growth and spread (Doyle, Donohoe et al. 2012). Insulin and IGF-1 activity can be influenced by diet (Runchey, Pollak et al. 2012, Freedland, Mavropoulos et al. 2008, Heiss, Spyridopoulos et al. 2017) and by levels of physical activity (Haydon, Macinnis et al. 2006).
For primary prevention of CRC, therefore, the evidence suggests that plant-based diets, rich in dietary fibre, with the inclusion of fermented dairy produce, with a low intake of red and processed meats and alcohol, are consistent with a lower risk of CRC overall. Furthermore, professional nutritional support for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and low adiposity has a role to play in CRC prevention.
Finally, for people who develop cancers including CRC, evidence suggests that nutrition may influence cancer recurrence and progression, partially through impact on body weight, but also on inflammation and insulin. Generally, the nutritional advice for primary prevention may be considered as a baseline for the advice for cancer survivors, (Pekmezi, Demark-Wahnefried 2010). However, CRC survivors may have undergone extensive surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and therefore specialised individual advice is required, particularly after extensive bowel resection.
In summary, CRC is influenced by several modifiable risk factors including diet and lifestyle. It provides an example of how appropriate professional nutrition advice can apply the evidence base to cancer prevention. Click here for references.
FOOD IN FOCUS - BRUSSEL SPROUTS
Baked Brussel sprouts tater tots
By Shannon @ Yup... It's Vegan!
Brussel sprout gratin
By Sophie Grigson
Brussel sprouts with pancetta
By Gordon Ramsay
Love them or loathe them, there is no denying that these leafy green cruciferous vegetables are a key part of Christmas dinner. But, did you know that they also have cancer fighting properties too? The miniature cabbages contain compounds called glucosinolates , which the body uses to make isothiocyanates to activate the cancer-fighting enzyme system in the body. In addition to this, glucosinolates regulate inflammation and increase detoxification So, when planning your Christmas feast, remember to include these green spheres of goodness, which are bursting with antioxidants such as vitamin C as well as being a great source of fibre, B vitamins and potassium.
Brussel sprout, apple and bacon hash
By Martha Stewart
Research shows that consumption of blueberries does not inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
Oily fish can contribute to development of cancer.
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Which of the following increase the risk of colorectal cancer?
c) Red meat
d) Saturated fat
e) All of them
Click here for answers
Phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables have multiple anti-cancer properties.
High alcohol consumption does not increase the risk of breast cancer.
Prostate cancer is around ________ more frequent among elderly men than among younger men.
Which bacterial infection is commonly implicated in gastric cancer?
c) H. pylori
Research shows that coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of liver, kidney, and to a lesser extent, premenopausal breast and colorectal cancers.
Research shows that excessive sun exposure takes place years and decades before skin cancer arises.
This is Sirius and Loki - both German wire haired pointers who live with one of our Year 1 tutors. Loki's still a puppy and lives up to his name - he's always up to mischief and loves stealing socks. Sirius likes hunting for fish on the beach and enjoys all sorts of exercise, even yoga!
Look out for more pets in the next issue...
This is Spud. He is a very stubborn but, an affectionate miniature Dachshund who loves the great outdoors He often accompanies our Head of Education to the office where he can be found sat by Breda's side, willing her to give him treats. He also took great pride recently in "helping" a SFC student with her exam (by sitting at her feet and sending out calming vibes).
Meet BCNH'S furry LITTLE side kicks...
This is Ally, a 4-year-old tabby who was rescued from Battersea three years ago. Since when she has proved to be the perfect cat - aloof, lacking in affection and constantly hungry. She makes her feelings known by standing on the Year 2 Programme Leader's laptop while she is skyping students.
Meet Drew (left), our office administrator's 10-year-old cat. He still loves to chase mice around and relax in the garden all day. He loves going home to get lots of attention and waits for his treats - his favorite time of the day.
BCNH GIFT: Donation in memory of jennifer Sturman
BCNH is delighted to announce that Harriet Owusu (pictured below), a Year 1 student, will be the recipient of a generous gift donated to the college in memory of one of our students, Jennifer Sturman (pictured right).
Jennifer was passionate about the course, well-liked by all her peers and an exceptionally dedicated and talented student. Sadly Jennifer suffered from an illness that was ultimately insurmountable and her family have made this gift in Jennifer's memory so that some element of her hard work and enthusiasm can be continued by helping another student progress through the course.
Harriet was nominated by a fellow Year 1 student, Agnes Antonowicz, who told us that Harriet is "a very dedicated student, always super prepared, great colleague, always willing to help".
These thoughts were echoed by all the BCNH staff who have had the opportunity to work with Harriet, who have noted her enthusiasm, level of commitment and general kindness. As an example, when we were struggling to find a suitably qualified administrator, Harriet offered to assist in her evenings, despite working full time as a legal secretary and studying for our Science Foundation Course (SFC) at the time.
It would be fair to say that Harriet was in shock at first when we informed her of our decision but has since passed on her thanks to Agnes, to Jennifer’s family and to all of the BCNH team. She told us: “I was both shocked and delighted to have received an email from Bev, saying that I had been awarded the £250 gift in memory of Jennifer Sturman.I am truly grateful both to Jennifer’s family and to those people who nominated for me for the gift, and will certainly be putting the money to good use. I will probably be buying more books, but will also be saving some of the money to buy a bottle of Champagne next summer to share with my fellow students to celebrate the end of the first year of the course.”
Once again, the BCNH team would also like to thank Jennifer’s family for their generous gift in her memory and wish them all a merry Christmas.
1. What or who inspired you to train in naturopathic medicine?
I was inspired early on by my colleagues in pharmacy and family medicine, who all strongly believed in the importance of a good diet and lifestyle, but found it very difficult to incorporate the education into their appointments. It was a perfect match for me.
2. Have you always been interested in food, health and wellbeing?
A good diet, stress management and exercise are all things that I prioritized even before I consciously knew it was important. I grew up in a small town in Canada where we ate our produce from the garden and spent the majority of our days in the outdoors. Once it became clear that my fortune wasn’t the average reality, I knew I could make a difference by educating others on how they can benefit from these simplicities, too.
3. What does a typical day usually look like for you?
My days include working with ProLon, the first and only Fasting Mimicking Diet that recently launched in the UK. I have a lot of pride in ProLon as the research is top class and it has the potential to help a lot of people prevent and possibly reverse chronic disease. Another area of interest allows my nights and weekends to be filled with nutritional consultations for athletes local to the Essex area.
BCNH lecturer Tara Hambley, BSc (Hons) BA (Naturopathy), talks about her passion for preventative medicine...
Tara is a Naturopathic Doctor who studied at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine in Toronto, Ontario. With a passion for education, she feels fortunate to be in a field where she can be involved in training other students, while also having extra time available during clinical consultations to educate patients. Tara became involved in lecturing and tutoring at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine for various educational and clinical courses. Beginning early in her training, she recognized the importance of understanding the core sciences as well as keeping up-to-date with Evidence-Based-Medicine. Within private practice, she focuses on nutritional supplementation and dietary changes, exercise prescription and modification, as well as individualized patient education. In the UK, she provides nutritional support for various rugby and football clubs within Essex.
"Research has never been stronger..."
QUESTION TIME WITH...
4. What is your area of expertise and why did you decide to specialise in this?
My area of focus is preventative medicine. Research has never been stronger for the benefit nutrition can have in preventing many of the leading causes of chronic disease and early death.
5. What is the biggest challenge you have faced in your career to date?
I emigrated from Canada so there was a difficult transition period for me. I left a practice, colleagues and patients that I really cared about and I wasn’t always confident that I would find similar in the UK. Soon after being here, I saw so much enthusiasm for wellbeing and a real budding interest in nutrition.
6. What is your favourite lecture to present to BCNH students and why?
I enjoy lecturing on any anatomy or physiology topic. Research is always going to present new therapies and interventions, but if we understand how the body works and why disease develops, we will always be able to understand why a new treatment will, or will not, work.
7. What does your typical day on a plate look like?
Not surprisingly, I’m all about the basics. I primarily eat a Mediterranean-style diet, with lots of vegetables, fish, beans, nuts and olive oil.
8. What would your one piece of advice be for anyone thinking of training in this area?
Spend extra time on the basic sciences and the more advanced topics will be much easier to understand. Memorizing something may last a couple weeks but fully understanding the topic will last your entire career.
What our GRADUATES say about BCNH
Regularly taking the fermented food kefir has been found to help in the treatment of constipation in some people.
Kefir, a traditional fermented milk, has been shown to help relieve constipation in a small number of previous studies, reducing the need for laxative drugs and/ orglycerol enemas. The benefit of kefir is thought to be due to its probiotic effects.
To see if kefir could help treat constipation in people hospitalized with mental and physical disabilities, a research group from Japan compared the effects of 2 g of freeze-dried kefir with meals to a ‘placebo’ of powdered milk over 12 weeks.
They found that kefir significantly reduced constipation overall. There were important difference in individual responses though, with some individuals experiencing complete relief of constipation, whereas others had no benefit.
“Despite individual variations, consuming kefir daily could prevent constipation,” commented the study investigators. “Alternative methods therefore are needed to relieve constipation in individuals who are unresponsive to kefir,” they noted.
“As probiotic effects differ markedly among individuals, changing the probiotic species could reduce or prevent constipation in individuals who are unresponsive to kefir. Another possibility is to stimulate the Bifidobacterium family in the colon,” they commented. They plan to study the effects of prebiotics - which stimulate Bifidobacterium – in kefir non-responsive people in a future clinical study.
*Click here for article references.
Dip BCNH BSc(Hons)
Kefir for digestive regularity
By Benjamin Brown, ND - Naturopath, BCNH Lecturer, Science Writer and Speaker
1.What did you do before you decided to study Nutritional Therapy with BCNH?
I was, and still am, a musician (vocalist).
2.Why Nutritional Therapy? Have you always been interested in food, health and wellbeing?
Not really, although my family still marvels at my passion for consuming parsley during my childhood in the U.S., when it was only ever used as a garnish! I discovered Nutritional Therapy after many frustrating and unsuccessful trips to NHS specialists for serious health problems affecting my voice. I first obtained diplomas in Nutrition and Naturopathy at another college, then decided I would need more in-depth studies to be able to work effectively with clients suffering from complex health conditions and their doctors.
3. How do you plan your day / week in order to make sure that you fit time for work, studies and leisure activities?
I always make sure that I take a walk every day without fail, and take lots of study breaks. A bit of exercise and relaxation keeps me feeling positive and ensures that I can focus better on work and studies. It is also important to have understanding and supportive friends and family- I’d have been lost without them.
MEET BCNH GRADUATE JOAN VISKANT
Interested in our Science Foundation Course?
If you wish to study Nutritional Therapy with BCNH and do not have an A-level (or equivalent) in Biology or Chemistry, you will be required to complete a Science Foundation Course first. The tailor-made course covers a range of topics from cell structure and respiration to free radicals and amino acids , which will equip you with a basic science background to follow the modules on the Diploma or BSc (Hons) Nutritional Therapy programmes.
For more information or to apply, contact us at
CONSIDERING A CAREER CHANGE?
4.What are your plans for the future? How would you like to use your new qualification?
I see so many potential opportunities for me as a Nutritional Therapist! I would very much like to work with the medical profession in a specialised field, but I need to get my practice up and running and gain experience first.
5.What is the biggest challenge you have faced when studying with BCNH?
Being a student with dyslexia has been a huge challenge. I have had to receive ongoing training in how to learn as a dyslexic alongside my academic studies.
6.What has been your favourite part of your studies so far and why?
The best part of my studies by far has been learning about medical-, functional- and self-testing. These tests give us tools to communicate with the client and the medical profession, whilst allowing us to give a personal targeted nutritional programme.
7.What is the most rewarding thing about the course?
Learning how to translate scientific and medical explanations into something clients can understand was initially very frustrating, but invaluable. The look on the clients’ faces as they begin to understand how their body works makes it all worthwhile.
8.Have you got any tips or words of wisdom for BCNH students to get them through their course?
Learn every subject as though it were the most important subject. I have been amazed at how it all comes together in the end, with nothing wasted. Keep great notes, and have an excellent filing system. Take the time to make separate documents for mechanisms early on, using the Mechanisms Database as a template. You will use them!
However, coffee consumption is unrelated to prostate, pancreas and ovarian cancers.
3. All of them
Research shows that fish processing such as smoking and high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of carcinogenic chemicals polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs).
5. H. pylori
H. pylori can cause long-lasting inflammation in the stomach which can ultimately lead to stomach cancer.
Alcohol increases circulating oestrogen by impairing oestrogen metabolism in the liver. Oestrogen increases epithelial cell (cells covering internal organs & tissues) proliferation, resulting in breast cancer.
Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussel sprouts and cabbage contain high levels of flavonoids, which have anti-inflammatory & anti-tumour effects.
Animal studies show that consumption of blueberry juice is anti‑inflammatory and that suitable dosage of blueberry juice decreases the expression of enzymes, involved in the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
Individuals who tan poorly, burn easily on the sun, or with skin freckles are particularly susceptible to developing skin cancer.
AUNE, D., LAU, R., CHAN, D.S.M., VIEIRA, R., GREENWOOD, D.C., KAMPMAN, E. and NORAT, T., 2012. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.Annals of Oncology,23(1), pp. 37-45.
AUNE, D., NAVARRO ROSENBLATT, D.A., CHAN, D.S., VIEIRA, A.R., VIEIRA, R., GREENWOOD, D.C., VATTEN, L.J. and NORAT, T., 2015. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,101(1), pp. 87-117.
BINGHAM, S.A., DAY, N.E., LUBEN, R., FERRARI, P., SLIMANI, N., NORAT, T., CLAVEL-CHAPELON, F., KESSE, E., NIETERS, A., BOEING, H., TJONNELAND, A., OVERVAD, K., MARTINEZ, C., DORRONSORO, M., GONZALEZ, C.A., KEY, T.J., TRICHOPOULOU, A., NASKA, A., VINEIS, P., TUMINO, R., KROGH, V., BUENO-DE-MESQUITA, H.B., PEETERS, P.H., BERGLUND, G., HALLMANS, G., LUND, E., SKEIE, G., KAAKS, R., RIBOLI, E. and EUROPEAN PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION INTO CANCER AND NUTRITION, 2003. Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study.Lancet,361(9368), pp. 1496-1501.
BOFFETTA, P., COUTO, E., WICHMANN, J., FERRARI, P., TRICHOPOULOS, D., BUENO-DE-MESQUITA, H.B., VAN DUIJNHOVEN, FRÄNZEL J. B., BÜCHNER, F.L., KEY, T., BOEING, H., NÖTHLINGS, U., LINSEISEN, J., GONZALEZ, C.A., OVERVAD, K., NIELSEN, M.R.S., TJØNNELAND, A., OLSEN, A., CLAVEL-CHAPELON, F., BOUTRON-RUAULT, M., MOROIS, S., LAGIOU, P., NASKA, A., BENETOU, V., KAAKS, R., ROHRMANN, S., PANICO, S., SIERI, S., VINEIS, P., PALLI, D., VAN GILS, C.H., PEETERS, P.H., LUND, E., BRUSTAD, M., ENGESET, D., HUERTA, J.M., RODRÍGUEZ, L., SÁNCHEZ, M., DORRONSORO, M.
BARRICARTE, A., HALLMANS, G., JOHANSSON, I., MANJER, J., SONESTEDT, E., ALLEN, N.E., BINGHAM, S., KHAW, K., SLIMANI, N., JENAB, M., MOUW, T., NORAT, T., RIBOLI, E. and TRICHOPOULOU, A., 2010. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute,102(8), pp. 529-537.
COUTO, E., BOFFETTA, P., LAGIOU, P., FERRARI, P., BUCKLAND, G., OVERVAD, K., DAHM, C.C., TJONNELAND, A., OLSEN, A., CLAVEL-CHAPELON, F., BOUTRON-RUAULT, M.C., COTTET, V., TRICHOPOULOS, D., NASKA, A., BENETOU, V., KAAKS, R., ROHRMANN, S., BOEING, H., VON RUESTEN, A., PANICO, S., PALA, V., VINEIS, P., PALLI, D., TUMINO, R., MAY, A., PEETERS, P.H., BUENO-DE-MESQUITA, H.B., BUCHNER, F.L., LUND, E., SKEIE, G., ENGESET, D., GONZALEZ, C.A., NAVARRO, C., RODRIGUEZ, L., SANCHEZ, M.J., AMIANO, P., BARRICARTE, A., HALLMANS, G., JOHANSSON, I., MANJER, J., WIRFART, E., ALLEN, N.E., CROWE, F., KHAW, K.T., WAREHAM, N., MOSKAL, A., SLIMANI, N., JENAB, M., ROMAGUERA, D., MOUW, T., NORAT, T., RIBOLI, E. and TRICHOPOULOU, A., 2011. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort.British journal of cancer,104, pp. 1493-1499.
DE MORENO DE LEBLANC, A. and PERDIGON, G., 2010. The application of probiotic fermented milks in cancer and intestinal inflammation.The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society,69(3), pp. 421-428.
DOYLE, S.L., DONOHOE, C.L., LYSAGHT, J. and REYNOLDS, J.V., 2012. Visceral obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cancer.The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society,71(1), pp. 181-189.
FARDET, A., 2010. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre?Nutrition research reviews,23(1), pp. 65-134.
FREEDLAND, S.J., MAVROPOULOS, J., WANG, A., DARSHAN, M., DEMARK-WAHNEFRIED, W., ARONSON, W.J., COHEN, P., HWANG, D., PETERSON, B., FIELDS, T., PIZZO, S.V. and ISAACS, W.B., 2008. Carbohydrate restriction, prostate cancer growth, and the insulin-like growth factor axis.The Prostate,68(1), pp. 11-19.
GONZALEZ, C.A. and RIBOLI, E., 2010. Diet and cancer prevention: Contributions from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC) study.European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990),46(14), pp. 2555.
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